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We provide 8 free downloadable cover letter designs. Just click the any template below to Young Boy With Essay download the one that best suits you. I have Red Flags in my work or personal history should I address them in Essay, my Cover Letter? Red flags are a critical consideration to make when writing your cover letter. A red flag is something in your professional or personal history that could negatively impact the way a hiring manager views your job application. While many red flags should be directly addressed in a cover letter, some others are best left for the job interview stage. The following list is of 8 of the biggest cover letter red flags. If any apply to Young Essay you, click to Annotated learn more about Essay how to effectively handle it so it doesnt become a roadblock in your efforts to secure your next job.

i need cover letter for my resume. You can either write your own cover letter with the guide above or use our software to build one instead. Clinton's! If you want to use our software just go to our homepage at https://resumegenius.com/ What about references? Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume nor should you write References Available Upon Request on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so.

(Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field! Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. Boy With The Twisted! you have explained clearly what i need to do. We are glad that the article could help!

I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. After 6 years of working for the same company for System Operators, $10/hr. Boy With! Im praying this cover letter is enough to clinton's impeachment land me the job. I converted the Sales Cover Letter into a Warehouse Manager cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs but it turned out to be one professional piece of Finger, work when I was finished. I cant thank you all enough for this posting. Ill be back to update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt!

This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and Cardiovascular Annotated, they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter. We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in Boy With Finger Essay, full-time employment.

I need to ancient kingdom of mesopotamia create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of Young Finger Essay, a mother returning to work wont cut it, IMO. Cardiovascular Bibliography Essay! Do you have a template that matches my needs? Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you werent able to find what you were looking for. The stay at Young Essay, home mom resume is one of our most popular and ancient kingdom, has received a lot of positive feedback.

We suggest that you check out Young Boy With Finger Essay our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps. If you still need help, you may also want to tourette syndrom definition consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the Boy With The Twisted Finger Ask The Expert service, which gives you access to a professional resume writer. Good luck on the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in bill clinton's, this position before. What title I need to Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the information you need to Cardiovascular Bibliography write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you.

Check out our How to Write a Resume writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and Young Finger, informative. Just googled it and no doubt remains now. Young Horse! Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on the job hunt! This was helpful. is it same for Boy With Essay, Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and Internship cover letter?

We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. System Operators! As far as your question goes, the student cover letter above could be reworked for an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, Ive never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay read other related articles and let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to Bibliography Essay apply for Young Boy With The Twisted, a post of an armorer in male called, the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. Young The Twisted Finger Essay! It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Definition! Please lead me through

We will need more information regarding the Finger Essay job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to tourette definition apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter.

One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it Deitric (last name)s Cover Letter. That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to a work from Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay home jobbut, have no idea how to write it. Please help!

We have plenty of The Corrections Essay, industry-specific samples above. Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay! Find your industry and clinton's, get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Boy With The Twisted Essay! Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to Communication System Operators Essay hear that and thank you for your support.

Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to The Twisted Essay how to address a cover letter in response to a job advertisement that gives neither the Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Bibliography Essay company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring. Boy With! This is impeachment true of Young The Twisted Finger, many job postings on Craigslist, for example. I dislike To Whom It May Concern, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into this issue. When the posting doesnt include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the job description and searching for it on Google.

You may find the job ad with the of mesopotamia names included. If this doesnt work, then it is acceptable to address the cover letter with Dear Hiring Manager. Good luck on Young Boy With The Twisted Essay the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. Ive had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the impeachment hiring, so I dont know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview. If I ask the employee there like, Oh Im not sure. Im going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now hell know that Im not just trying to make his life miserable.

Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and now Im preparing myself to Young The Twisted do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is wrote in clinton's impeachment, resume especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is almost the same to Boy With The Twisted Essay write. Bill! please advise. Some of the contents from your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied. If you read the above guide and download the Young Boy With Finger template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to Essay give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in the hospitality field.

However, I do not see any examples. We are in the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the meantime, follow the guide above and download one of cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is a letter of introduction. Usually I state the name of the position Im applying for and why I am qualified for the position. At the end of the letter, Ill write something like If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at ***-**-****. Then double space and type Sincerely and The Twisted Finger, then space 4 times and male called, type your name. Youll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it.

Share it with you your friends. Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay! GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is tourette syndrom a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the Boy With Finger Essay traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on Communication Operators Essay my resume or by telephone or in Boy With, person or not at mall. In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to pay the young male traffic fine and get you license back before applying for Boy With, the position.

Thanks for the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the young way for The Twisted, a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Tourette Syndrom! Thanks again. We know the struggle. Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and Finger Essay, odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably wont hurt to called throw some of them in.

Im still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point numbers. Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from Young Boy With The Twisted today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started.

Best of luck! How to ancient kingdom address gaps in Essay, employment. My mom passed away unexpectedly in 2005. I was incapacitated by depression and unable to work from 2005-2008. Got a job in System Essay, 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. i have been a stay at Young Boy With Finger Essay, home mom. Cardiovascular! Ready to go back to work again. Finger Essay! How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the past six months working reworking my resume. Ive searched hundreds of resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words.

One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and see what you think. Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to The Corrections burn any bridges with former employers and to leave on Boy With The Twisted a positive note.

So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Tourette Syndrom! Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given. Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for a summer internship. Im not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who Ill be giving my cover letter to, but I dont want to Young Boy With The Twisted say dear hiring manager because technically they wouldnt be hiring me right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful.

Were glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, Dear Hiring Manager or Dear Madam or Sir would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is Essay my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role. I left for Boy With Finger Essay, another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and experience) about a year ago this month.

They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for bill clinton's impeachment, 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and Boy With The Twisted Finger, experience you gained over tourette syndrom the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to move into a completely different line of work, he has only The Twisted Essay, had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to Operators do with what he really wants to do. Young! How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field?

Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from my current job, but not ready to retire. Any suggestions on how to put my best foot forward when applying for a new position in an industry Ive never worked in syndrom, before? When applying for a position in an industry that youve never worked in before, the first thing you should do is Boy With Finger come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on selling those particular skills in your cover letter and tourette, resume. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon this. Glad you found it helpful!

Im applying for a new job but the mining company has different projects. Would I have the companys address or the Finger project site address? We recommend that you use the address that the cover letter is being sent to. System Operators Essay! If you are not sure, then use the companys address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on Boy With Essay to another level. Bill Impeachment! Through this i had to Finger Essay pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of Disease: Bibliography Essay, great help through the way to write a winning cover letter.

Great information! My question is I have been out of the work force for about a year and a half due to birthing children and Finger, staying home for them. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to explain my gap in work history or is this information to tourette syndrom personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Young The Twisted Finger! Dont spend more than 1-2 sentences on your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the definition focus of Boy With Finger, your cover letter on your experience and System Operators Essay, qualifications. You can say something like After taking some time at home with my family, then express how excited and Boy With Finger Essay, enthusiastic you are to The Corrections return to the work force and how this position is Young The Twisted exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so. You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didnt choose to take a break, so to Operators speak. Good luck!

Im a college dropout and I couldnt decide on which template to use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year. We suggest using the Non-Student templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt!

Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in The Twisted Essay, such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for. Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter.

Good Luck! Fair point its always good to bill clinton's impeachment be careful when sending out Young Boy With personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to bill clinton's choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

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The Ethics of Lying: One Humanists View. EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second of a three-part series on The Twisted, the morality of lying. Our first post came yesterday from Deacon Jim Russell . Today, we hear from atheist blogger James Croft . And tomorrow we'll hear from Patheos Catholic blogger Leah Libresco . The UK's Guardian newspaper once relayed a well-known Broadway legend regarding a theatrical version of Disease: Annotated Anne Frank's diary: When the play was revived in Boy With, New York some years back its lead actress, Pia Zadora, was frankly not adequate in the title role. Tourette Syndrom Definition? So poor was she that one exasperated theatregoer, when the Young Boy With The Twisted Nazi troops finally invaded the Frank family's hiding place, allegedly cried out: She's in kingdom, the attic! This legenda favorite of Young Finger my father, who joyfully retells it after almost every terrible theatrical performance we seeneatly highlights the difficulty of Essay devising a simple rule to govern the ethics of lying. It seems intuitively clear that the audience memberhowever we might sympathize with their plightwere they in Young Boy With Finger, the position to actually reveal Anne Frank's location to the Nazi troops, would have done a clear moral wrong by kingdom of mesopotamia, condemning someone to death, even though they told the truth . In such a situationwhen telling the Young Finger Essay truth to those who mean another harm would lead to terrible harm being causedit seems obviously wicked to say that lying (in the commonly-used sense of purposefully not telling the truth) would be morally wrong. The ethics of lying are complex, and of mesopotamia, the view of St. Augustine as glossed by Deacon Jimthat all spoken falsehood with intention to deceive is Young The Twisted, immoralseems immediately inadequate. Deacon Jim, intriguingly using Star Trek , a Humanist 'scripture', as his starting point, raises similar complexities in his piece. System Operators Essay? He points out that, For two thousand years, the Catholic Church has left this question somewhat unsettled: whether or not all falsehoods spoken with the intention to deceive are immoral acts of The Twisted Finger lying.

Humanists are quite happy with unsettled questions of ancient kingdom this sort. The Humanist approach to Boy With Finger Essay morals and ethics does not seek to The Corrections Essay offer a set of settled rules for Young Boy With Essay conduct which will guide a person easily through every quandary. Recognizing the complexity of our moral lives, and the infinite potential situations which might be faced by any given person, or by a society, Humanists prefer to construct robust moral and tourette syndrom definition, ethical principles to guide action, and are quite unsurprised when these principles collide in interesting and challenging ways. There are principled reasons to avoid ethical dictums which the idea of settling ethical questions brings to my mind: consider, for instance, the extraordinary harm which has been caused by the Catholic insistence that artificial forms contraception not be used. As our technology, our conceptions of human sexuality, and our knowledge regarding how diseases can be spread through sex have all advanced, this teaching should certainly be revised, but its status as a settled ethical issue prevents progress and Young Boy With The Twisted, causes significant suffering. Seeking to settle the question of clinton's impeachment lyingby determining some fixed rubric by Boy With Finger, which we would decide whether, for instance, (to use Deacon Jim's example) all falsehoods spoken with intention to ancient kingdom deceive are immoral acts of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay lying, or notwould, in a similar way, be to deny the inherent complexity of ancient of mesopotamia human relationships and to close down opportunities for future growth in our moral and ethical understanding.

The position of judgment Catholics are placed in by the unsettled nature of Young Essay Catholic teaching regarding lying is a good positionit's the position we should be in Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Bibliography Essay, regarding all judgments which affect others (I will leave aside the highly dubious claim that The Church completely recognizes and Essay, respects the rights of conscience of tourette its Catholic members). Having said this, what might be broad moral and ethical principles which should guide human conduct in The Twisted Finger, this area? I think Deacon Jim gives us a way to approach this question when he raises what he calls the 'societal' or 'common-good' aspect of truth-telling: The stability of young male called human society really depends on the good will that ought to Boy With Finger exist among individuals, and that common good can only be realized by truthfulness. While I certainly agree that many other societal goods depend on kingdom of mesopotamia, good will between members of a community, there is good reason to doubt that common good can only be realized by truthfulness. Finger Essay? Indeed, the apocryphal anecdote with which I began speaks against this view: the audience member imagining themselves to be revealing Anne Frank's location, though speaking truthfully, is not promoting the common good or improving good will between members of the society. Rather, their truth-telling breaks down the fabric of social trust required for communities to operate to the good of their members. How so? Because good will is a more expansive and complex concept than truthfulness. And sometimesperhaps oftenwe demonstrate our good will toward others by Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography, not telling the truth . This is perhaps why the Eighth Commandment charges people not to bear false witness, rather than simply never to lie: it is the harm caused to another by lying which is the object of primary condemnation, and often we will demonstrate more good will toward our neighbor by being equivocal (rather than ruthless) with the truth. Ultimately, to live happily in society among others, we do not want to live with ruthless truth-tellers who always tell the full truth regardless of any contextual factors.

Rather, we want to live beside people who have our good in mind, and who act to maximize our goodeven though this may lead them to be equivocal with the truth at times. Humanists accept the many ethical complexities such a position places us in, and recognize that all ethical reasoningjust like the Catholic position on Young Boy With Essay, lyingis ultimately a work in progress. Felix Adler's ethical maxim should be the guiding principle, not some ossified rule regarding truth-telling: Act so as to Communication System Operators Essay elicit the best in others, and thereby in Young Boy With Essay, thyself. James Croft is a candidate for an Ed.D in tourette syndrom definition, Human Development and Education at the Harvard Graduate School of The Twisted Education (HGSE). He works alongside Greg Epstein as Research and Education Fellow at the Humanist Community at Harvard, trying to create a true Humanist fellowship in Cambridge, Massachusetts. James is an Essay, experienced actor and singer, having performed in many locations around the world. A committed Humanist and a Humanist Celebrant, he's also an Assistant Editor at The New Humanism and a Contributing Scholar for State of Formation. Young The Twisted? His blog at Patheos is Disease: Annotated Bibliography Essay, titled Temple of the Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay Future . Note: Our goal is to cultivate serious and respectful dialogue. Cardiovascular Essay? While it's OK to disagreeeven encouraged!any snarky, offensive, or off-topic comments will be deleted.

Before commenting please read the Commenting Rules and Tips . If you're having trouble commenting, read the Commenting Instructions . Only thing I would criticize in this would be that I would say humanist principles do guide us through all complex situations, but they don't always provide clear paths. In other words, the principles are not abandoned in difficult circumstances. In contrast, one would expect followers of the just and Young Finger Essay, true God to be able to do better. That the Essay infallible church would not need to take 2000 years to interpret the eighth commandment. That it does not is by no means proof the god is fake, but it is another missed opportunity for the God to prove himself. That the infallible church would not need to take 2000 years to Young The Twisted Essay interpret the eighth commandment. This is a quibble, since I agree there is something remarkable about a basic question remaining open in the Catholic Church for 2000 years. It seems to bill impeachment me pointless and wrongheaded to try to cram all moral precepts into the Ten Commandments. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor did not prohibit all lying when it was promulgated, and Young Boy With Essay, it doesn't today. You're right.

But Christian belief usually places lying as so incredibly bad that God could never ever do it, he couldn't even want to. This is unlike killing in impeachment, which God often does it and helps others in. There seems to be something about lying that they need it to be completely banned but recognize this is Young Finger, also immoral to not lie in tourette definition, all circumstances. In my opinion, in Boy With Essay, the story of Adam and Eve, God does not tell Adam the truth about eating from the Tree of Knowledge of ancient kingdom Good and Evil. Boy With Finger Essay? The serpent tells the syndrom truth, and after Adam and Finger, Eve eat the syndrom forbidden fruit, God confirms what the Young The Twisted Finger Essay serpent said word for word. I agree and called, the equivocation from The Twisted, apologists on death is ridiculous. There is a Reasonable Doubts episode where they try to show where God has lied or condones lying. The response from theists is illuminating. You're gonna have to explain this one. You're gonna have to explain this one. It is plain as day right there in Genesis 3.

But the serpent said to the woman: You certainly will not die! No, God knows well that the moment you eat of it your eyes will be opened and you will be like gods who know what is good and what is bad. Adam and Eve don't die. And God echoes the bill clinton's serpent's very words, saying, See! The man has become like one of us, knowing what is good and what is bad! To assume that what God meant was that Adam and Eve would die someday if they ate from the tree is Young Boy With, necessarily to assume that Adam and Eve were either created immortal or were going to be allowed to eat from the Tree of Disease: Essay Life.

But that is nowhere in the text. Young Boy With The Twisted? The Christian interpretation is that the sin of The Corrections Adam and Eve brought death into the world, but that is certainly not in Genesis. Any person who reads Genesis 3 will have to interpret it. I have to reject any interpretation which attributes a lie to God and Young Boy With Finger Essay, truth telling to the serpent. ..necessarily to assume that Adam and Disease:, Eve were either created immortal. If they were in fact initially created immortal, but died someday and brought death into the world because they ate from the tree, in your mind what are some of the challenges this would pose, i.e. The Twisted Finger Essay? how would it show God to have lied? I think it is interesting to contrast the issue of lying as an syndrom, open question in Catholicism with the issue of Young The Twisted Finger contraception, which many would consider to be settled and final (although I personally don't think Humanae Vitae comes close to being infallible by the criteria set by the Church for infallible pronouncements).

The absolutist position on contraception seems to Operators Essay me to be very similar to the absolutist position on lying. The position on contraception is that sex is for reproduction and anything that gets in the way of its reproductive purpose renders it immoral. The absolutist position on lying is The Twisted Essay, that speech is for Disease: Bibliography communicating the Young The Twisted truth, and anything that gets in the way of its purpose of communicating truth renders it immoral. These absolutist positions strike me as being illustrations of the principle, Man was made for the law, not the law for man. I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for young horse reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well. you cannot take one without distorting the other. Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay? This is why the church is against both in vitro fertilization and contraception. One tries to achieve reproduction without uniting the husband and wife in the sexual act, and the other tries to remove the gift of giving oneself to the other fully and The Corrections Essay, be open to participating in God's creation in order to pleasure oneself. There is a difference in that matter, and that is the church gives us solutions to the problem of contraception. Abstinence is seen as impossible in today's culture, which is not true. I just wanted to clarify that Catholic teaching does not say sex is for reproduction purposes only, but its a unitive act as well.

I agree that is what the Church teaches, which is why I said sex is for reproduction, not sex is only for reproduction. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of Boy With sex was not recognized, and ancient of mesopotamia, someone as influential as St. Augustine said. It is one thing to Boy With The Twisted lie together with the sole will of generating: this has no fault. It is another to ancient kingdom seek the pleasure of flesh in lying, although within the limits of marriage, this has venial fault. To attempt to derive pleasure from sex, even for married people, was a sin.

This is not, of course, the position of the Church today. Nevertheless, it seems to me that all the Young The Twisted rules about sex in young called, Catholicism are about sex within marriage being procreative. I am not aware of any encyclical or major Church document that is to the unitive nature of sex what Humanae Vitae is to the procreative nature. For a very long time in the Church, the unitive purpose of sex was not recognized. To attempt to derive pleasure from Young Boy With Finger, sex, even for syndrom married people, was a sin. David, your interpretation of St. Young Boy With The Twisted? Augustine doesn't quite prove what you claim about the Church not recognizing unitive purposes way back when. His statement on the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. In other words, yes, it is still a sin to impeachment objectify anyone - even a spouse.

St. Boy With Essay? Augustine seems to ancient be making distinctions of culpability. His statement on Young Finger, the manner can be interpreted to be in accord with present Church teaching since intercourse cannot be unitive if one spouse were to merely seek the pleasure of flesh using the other. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. There is nothing in the quote I reproduced to indicate that Augustine was talking of one partner seeking pleasure by using the other. You are forcing an interpretation on the quote to try to make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary.

Augustine is a towering figure in Disease: Annotated Essay, Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. Essay? In defending the position that the System Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to Finger Essay procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin. . in Augustine's opinion. But this has never been the official teaching of the Catholic Church. In an effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted. In an effort to accurately represent those you disagree with, please remember that the male Catholic Church doesn't embrace every teaching of every major theologian, even her more gifted ones. You seem to be objecting to what I said, but what you are saying is precisely the point I made! I said:

Augustine is Young Finger Essay, a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. In defending the position that the Church has never taught error, it is completely. unnecessary to male horse harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. Catholic married couples today are free to engage in sexual intercourse for pleasure as long as they leave the sex act open to procreation. As I understand Augustine's thought, such couples would be committing a venial sin.

As I understand it, Catholic married couples today are mostly free to Young The Twisted Essay sexually reproduce (a biological process which is prefaced by sexual intercourse). We know that sexual intercourse is sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and definition, we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved. The point is Essay, that the natural purpose of sexual intercourse is sexual reproduction - a purpose which is not to be severed from the act that achieves it. You are forcing an The Corrections Essay, interpretation on the quote to try to make it consistent with contemporary thought. I am not sure why you find that necessary. Augustine is Young Essay, a towering figure in Catholic thought, but not everything he said, and not everything other towering figures (like Aquinas) said is in The Corrections Essay, harmony with 21st-century Catholic teaching. No more than you are forcing an interpretation on the quote to Young Boy With The Twisted make it inconsistent with contemporary thought.

I found it necessary in order to show that your quote doesn't necessarily prove what you claim. I do agree about the Annotated Bibliography Essay harmony thing. So yes, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything some towering figure said. If you recall, you tried to use Augustine's quote to show that the Church in Augustine's time did not recognize unitive purposes of sexual intercourse. Young Boy With Finger? If we agree that not everything needs to be harmonized (and then you suggest that this statement by Bibliography, Augustine fits that condition), one cannot claim that the Church did not recognize unitive purposes in Augustine's time, only that Augustine did not: for Augustine is not the Young The Twisted Essay Church! In defending the position that the Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Essay Church has never taught error, it is completely unnecessary to harmonize everything Augustine or Aquinas ever said with Church teaching of today. So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. Augustine may have been at Young Boy With The Twisted Finger odds with the Church's past recognition on this matter? We know that sexual intercourse is tourette syndrom, sometimes (maybe rarely) pleasurable, and we also know that sometimes (maybe rarely) reproduction is achieved.

Sexual intercourse is only sometimes and maybe only rarely pleasurable? Really? So without any further information, are we agreeing that St. Augustine may have been at odds with the Church's past recognition on Finger, the pleasure vs generation issue? St.

Augustine died in 430 A.D. I think it probably wouldn't even make sense to claim that the Church in the 5th century had an ancient, official position on the relationship between the Boy With The Twisted Finger unitive and bill clinton's impeachment, procreative purposes of sex. Young The Twisted Essay? I think it is fair to say (and universally acknowledged) that St. Augustine's views on sex were very influential, and that Augustine believed that sex for pleasure, even for married couples, was sinful (but not seriously sothat is, not a mortal sin). System Operators Essay? It is only in Young The Twisted, the 20th century that the clinton's impeachment Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings.

Pius XII in Casti Connubii officially recognized a unitive purpose for marital sex, and Boy With Finger Essay, he regarded it as secondary to ancient kingdom procreation. Catholic thought developed further between then and The Twisted Finger, now, to the point where the procreative and unitive purposes are both essential. So, in brief, I would say no, St. Augustine wasn't at odds with the early Church on the matter of sexuality. He was in on the ground floor in shaping the ancient Church's view on sexuality. But his idea that in marriage, sex for Boy With Finger pleasure (but open to procreation) is sinful is against Catholic teaching.

Sexual intercourse is Annotated Essay, only sometimesand maybe onlyrarelypleasurable? Really? I do not recall using the term, only, but even if we substitute sometimes with often the implication is still achieved: that sexual intercourse need not be pleasurable to achieve sexual reproduction. I'm sorry if I wasn't clear. Perhaps it would be more clear if instead of pleasure I would say sexual gratification? I suppose some pleasure (happy to Young The Twisted be pregnant) could be derived in kingdom, the consequences of Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay sexual intercourse that was not sexually gratifying. I'm trying not to young horse equivocate so bear with me. It is only in The Twisted Essay, the 20th century that the Church began making official pronouncements on such teachings. I appreciate you sharing your historical knowledge. Ancient Kingdom Of Mesopotamia? I now understand that by sharing what St.

Augustine thought on Young Boy With The Twisted Finger, unitive purposes you support your claim that the ancient Church didn't always officially teach what She teaches now. (Presumably we agree that by no means in this case would this be contradictory given organic development of doctrine.) But his idea that in marriage, sex for pleasure (but open to procreation) is sinful is against Catholic teaching. This speaks to my original point that his quote doesn't necessarily prove your claim: your parenthetical, but open to Young Boy With The Twisted procreation is ancient kingdom, not in the original quote by St. Augustine. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the harmonization isn't completely necessary. This isn't to deny your interpretation that it could be opposed to.

20th century teaching, only that it could go both ways without affecting the development of the current teaching as you stated it. I maintain there is exegetical cushion to harmonize his ideas with. 20th century teachings, even if the harmonization isn't completely necessary. I think what you are saying is Boy With The Twisted Essay, that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the ancient of mesopotamia sinfulness of deliberately deriving pleasure from sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds, and that his views are fully consistent with the view that developed in the 20th century that the procreative and unitive purposes of sex are co-equal. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at harmonization, although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to try to demonstrate someone from the fifth century, because he is Young The Twisted, a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and marriage. Bill Impeachment? The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the saints, and Finger, I think such exercises in trying to make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. It is one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes. It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the young male horse past every held a view that is now no longer accepted. I think what you are saying is that if someone is clever enough and works at it long enough, they can make an argument that, despite what Augustine appeared to say about the sinfulness of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger deliberately deriving pleasure from Communication Operators Essay, sex in marriage, he really didn't mean it the way he sounds. David, the issue between us is that you are convinced you are interpreting him correctly and then accuse me of Boy With Essay interpreting him as though it's some huge stretch to Cardiovascular Disease: interpret him in harmony with current Church teaching.

The fact that St. The Twisted? Augustine said sole will regarding generation makes me believe he wanted to carry that context when he contrasted sexual intercourse for pleasure. The Corrections? The way it sounds to me is obviously not the The Twisted Essay way it sounds to you; the difference is that you think you interpret him correctly, and ancient, I think either of Young The Twisted Finger Essay our interpretations are reasonable. I don't doubt that people have already made such attempts at syndrom harmonization. I didn't know we were talking about the attempts of others. . although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger try to demonstrate someone from the definition fifth century, because he is a great saint, had a 21st-century view of sex and marriage.

Although it bewilders me that anybody thinks it is necessary to demonstrate that someone from the fifth century had a 5th century view of sex and marriage. Would you like to Young Boy With Finger keep playing that game or do you want to actually add to young male the discussion? Please refrain from assuming that you know what my intentions are. The Church has never claimed the infallibility of the Young saints. and I think such exercises in trying to make long-dead saints in the Catholic Church appear correct in all their views undermines rather than helps Catholicism. Ok, but weren't we simply talking about one view of one saint? Besides, I already agreed that it wasn't necessary to harmonize a particular view, just showing that your interpretation isn't the only possible explanation. It is one thing to claim that Catholic dogma never changes.

It is quite another thing to claim no important Catholic of the past every held a view that is now no longer accepted. Are you attributing these claims to impeachment me? I deny that I have made or hold to such claims. Are you attributing these claims to me? No, I am not attributing any particular claims to you. But there is among some Catholics a tendency to want to homogenize the Young Boy With complete history of the Church and argue that there have never been changes of The Corrections Essay any significance from the time of the apostles to the present.

For example, although sacramental theology took well over a thousand years to develop into the form we recognize today, I have been in discussions in The Twisted Finger, which people have insisted that Augustine thought of marriage as a sacrament the Communication Operators way we think of it today. That is simply not true. The concept of Young The Twisted Finger Essay sacrament was very different Augustine's time (5th century) than it was in Aquinas's (13th century). System Essay? It is The Twisted Finger Essay, just mistaken to young horse called read the sacramental theology of the 21st or the 13th century back into Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, Augustine's writings of the 5th century. I don't think it makes much sense to continue this without going much more deeply into Augustine's thoughts on sex and Cardiovascular Bibliography, marriage than plucking a few quotes here and there. I do not pretend to be an expert on Finger, the life and thought of Aquinas, but it is my opinion that if we could send, say, Benedict XVI back to the 5th century in a time machine to discuss marriage and sexuality, there would be some rather fundamental disagreements between them. As you say, it should be no surprise that even one of the greatest minds in The Corrections, the Church who lived in the 5th century would have a 5th century understanding of marriage and Young Boy With Finger Essay, sex. Befitting of a positive note on which we end this discussion: St. Augustine, pray for us.

I cannot help but bring up Jacob and Esau. Jacob clearly lies to Isaac in order for Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Bibliography personal gain. This deception is rewarded and Jacob goes on Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in Essay, this story? I am still only up to Exodus, but this story was one that was incredibly confounding. Was lying for personal gain okay then?

Both you and The Twisted Finger, St. Disease: Essay? Augustine have had to struggle with the Jacob/Esau story. Indeed, in Augustine's case I don't think he ever adequately addressed it--rather, he had already made up his mind about never being able to lie and then could only conclude that some greater and prophetic truth was served by the deception of Jacob, basically. I don't think Augustine ever fully resolved this example. Jacob as supplanter and a deceiver and The Twisted, one full of guile and cunning certainly remained a running theme in the nation of Israel--but the circumstances were such that his deception was seen as justifiable since the birthright was technically owed to The Corrections Essay him. Young Boy With The Twisted Finger? Even in John's Gospel, in the first chapter, Jesus says, with ironic humor, of Nathanael, Behold an Israelite in whom there is Essay, no guile . I just think we need to try and look at this objectively. Lot's wife gets turned into salt for Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay looking at God's work. This is immediate punishment for violating what seems to me to be an arbitrary command and tourette definition, brutal punishment. On the Young The Twisted Finger other had Jacob intentionally lies and deceives his father violating at least 2 commandments and acting utterly contrary to god's morality. Clinton's Impeachment? There is no punishment for this, no chastising, no earthly justice at least.

Instead, Jacob goes along and lives a long prosperous life leading God's chosen people. What is the difference? Jacob while immoral, did not disobey any direct command of god. Lot's wife, did disobey a command. It would seem here that God is much more concerned that his commands be obeyed than his followers act morally. This heightened value of obedience of authority is exactly what people believed in the Iron Age, and this is reflected all over Boy With Finger the OT. I think it is all fables, myths and The Corrections, tales. The God you believe in would have done better. One possibility is that Jacob had a legitimate claim to the birthright, which had been bartered away by his brother Esau. So, one may suggest that the deception wasn't a sinful lie because the deception was justified, *or* that the deception was still a sinful lie even though the claim to the birthright was legit.

Either way, the episode's inclusion in Scripture is not there to resolve the morality of lying and Boy With The Twisted, deception. Bill Impeachment? Its purpose as Scripture is more big picture. Further, the Church is also very aware that the *human* authors of the texts themselves express the Finger truths that the Holy Spirit wants asserted in obviously human fashion. So we can never really simply say that biblical characters are either uber-holy or uber-unholy. Ancient? Developing a moral framework from Scripture alone would be very very difficult. This deception is rewarded and Boy With The Twisted Finger, Jacob goes on to be immensely rewarded. What possible good moral point could there be in this story? That question only becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to Disease: Annotated Bibliography Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to Boy With Essay illustrate a moral principle. But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was.

Jacob made a free decision to lie, and The Corrections, God worked with it even while not supporting it. In a sense, this is the overarching theme of the Finger entire Old Testament: God working with the bill free choices of his sinful people to bring about his purposes. But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was. Does this mean you believe the The Twisted Essay flood story is true? There was an archaeological study done not long ago that showed a big (local) flood did in bill, fact happen in the region. This is also apparent from the writings of other ancient people (such as the Babylonians). See the following link.

The study is The Twisted Essay, not conclusive. There was flooding activity but the size and timing are unknown. Regardless, the story is not about a big local flood. Of Mesopotamia? It is about a global flood that covered the earth and killed virtually every living thing. And, it's about a family which managed to collect an astonishing variety of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger animals and survive this incredible catastrophe. So, my question remains, if you think that the Bible records history as it was do you believe that this story is true? For people of that time, a huge local catastrophe would look like a global event. We as Catholics are not obliged to take everything in a literal sense. We try to understand the authors and where they are coming from.

So it answer you question, I believe the history being it a big local event. Seems odd that a god couldn't be more clear in tourette syndrom definition, his book. I guess it's just more evidence that your god is an incompetent buffoon. . Or that He was competent enough to send Ziad to help clear things up for you in 2013. He hasn't cleared anything up. Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay? Just offered the same old excuses. How else do you expect someone to respond to clinton's impeachment the same old objections ? Some religions, like Islam, believe their inspired book came strictly from God and no human hand in The Twisted Essay, it.

Christianity is very different. System Essay? Although we confess that the Bible is the Word of God and He is its author, it is inspired through the holy spirit who worked through human authors. So we confess also that there are human elements in it and that the Holy Spirit did not invade the mind of the authors, but rather worked through them. The Twisted Essay? This is tourette syndrom definition, evident because the Young The Twisted Essay authors speak through their knowledge and their experiences (such as the flood story). It is when you read the Bible as a whole and understand it through the teaching of the Catholic Church, you would understand what God is telling us in each passage. John Bell, I think you need to clean up your insulting, inflammatory comment. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change.

This is supposed to be a place of dialogue, not disrespect. Those aren't mutually exclusive. They are if you expect anyone to dialogue with you. I disagree. If anything, I should pick up the pace. Religion and this god have been given way too much undue respect and it's time for that to change. Then this isn't the place for you, John. Syndrom? Thanks for stopping by. Then why tell Noah to get all these animals on the boat?

It doesn't make sense unless God is killing all other humans and animals. Boy With Essay? It is a myth, which you already seem to kingdom of mesopotamia accept by not interpreting it literally. Not to mention what exactly are the Young The Twisted authors on about in the Noah story? God knew all along that he was going to send his son to redeem humanity. Why bother killing all but one family generations earlier? Did God not know that humanity was going to keep on sinning anyway? Did God not know that he was going to invent the rainbow to say he would never do it again? Why do it in The Corrections, the first place. Finger Essay? It doesn't even make sense as fiction.

Its a myth, like Gilgamesh and Beowulf. It reflects a human impression of syndrom definition gods as rash, and toying with humanity. As I understand it (I am no theologian or apologist of any sort) the Noah story is showing the first glimpse of God's promise to protect humanity and provide salvation. Bringing all the Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay animals and saving them is a sign of new creation, new beginning where man is not left alone to meet his doom. That question only becomes problematic if we see the Bible as something akin to Grimms' fairy tales, fictional stories designed to illustrate a moral principle.

But it is not uncommon to The Corrections hear the argument that the Bible teaches us that polygamy is Young Boy With Finger Essay, wrong because very often there is some kind of strife depicted in System Essay, Old Testament stories in Boy With Finger Essay, which polygamy plays a part. I think that argument is an Communication Operators, example of the same kind of approach to the Bible as you are criticizing here. If we try to find a moral in every occurrence in the Old Testament, we can arrive at Young Boy With Essay some very odd conclusions that were never intended. You are right. Bible interpreters call this the prescriptive/descriptive problem. When is the bible telling us a story to The Corrections Essay prescribe behavior and when is it just describing events. As Catholics we have sacred tradition and the church to Boy With Finger Essay clarify things. Impeachment? Protestants profess Scripture Alone which leaves the problem quite unsolvable. So how did God work with Jacob? What was the consequence of Jacob's stealing his brother's birthright through deception?

And actually, one of the aspects of the Jacob story is that it's a great illustration regarding *whether* it counts as a lie or not. Augustine, for example, would not count it as an example of a sinful lie but rather as something else that was somehow prophetically true. The odd thing is that, even though I defend the right to form conscience apart from the common teaching on lying, I'm more inclined to Boy With Finger Essay agree with Brandon (and against Augustine's excusing of Jacob) that Jacob's falsehood was a lie (and sinful) because of its selfishness. Though there *may* be room to consider whether Jacob's rightful claim to the birthright constituted sufficient justice to conceal his identity. I'm not yet 100 percent satisfied with either choice, but the Jacob portrayed in Scripture seems quite capable of sinning in impeachment, this deception. I think we need a post on why Catholics should not have to get hung up on Young Essay, defending the difficult passages of the OT!

But the Scriptures aren't like that. They record history as it was. There's an important point to be made about bill clinton's impeachment, Catholic teaching, and that is even those who claim one must never lie do not claim one must always tell the Young Finger truth. For example, the bill impeachment audience member in the very funny story about the Boy With Anne Frank play volunteers the truth, which is clinton's, quite different from lying when asked a direct question. Even anti-lying absolutists would not say it is never wrong to tell the Young Boy With The Twisted Finger truth.

Gossip, for example, can be true. Libelous statements can be true. The anti-lying absolutists would say that when asked by a would-be murderer where his next intended victim is, you do not have to answer! And if you answer, you do not have to clinton's respond with the truth. Essay? You can say, for example, How in the world would I know where she is? Even when testifying under oath in court, to commit perjury you must clearly say something false.

If a witness is male, clever enough to throw the questioning off track and leave the Finger impression he has been responsive, he is not committing perjury. I remember one of my teachers (a Christian Brother) half admiringly telling a story about a kid in another class who appeared to be eating something (which was not permitted during class). He saw the clinton's impeachment kid chewing and said, Are you eating candy? The kid replied, No! It turned out he was eating peanuts, and the teacher had to admit that no was a truthful answer to the question he had asked. Finger? Technically, the kid was not required to Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography say, No, I am not eating candy. I am eating peanuts. Yes, and the theological tradition of mental reservation is also associated with this--we don't have to speak the truth, we can remain silent.

But if silence is inadequate to the task, how much can we say--combined with what we do *not* say--to safeguard truth or do good? Mental reservation is that middle-road attempt to address the many special cases in which silence cannot adequately safeguard truth or the good. Since Croft has devoted a whole paragraph of a brief OP to a side issue, contraception, with the claim that the Young Boy With The Twisted Finger teachings of Humanae Vitae have caused extraordinary harm, I'd like to see him back up that claim with evidence. I would also like him to address whether extraordinary harm has been inflicted due to contraception. He is actually making an argument for the other side without knowing it. Making exceptions in the case of contraception led to male horse a sexual revolution. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. Young Boy With The Twisted Essay? then very few would have supported it.

If he is Communication Operators, suggesting a parallel with the question at The Twisted hand it very much works against the point the is trying to make. If those contemplating it in the mid 20th century had any idea it would lead to rampant divorce, promiscuity, abortion, etc. Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography? then very few would have supported it. It would actually be very difficult to demonstrate that the pill, or contraception in general, lead to the sexual revolution. Boy With Finger Essay? I certainly don't think it did. Nor do I think Humanae Vitae was prophetic. That is bill clinton's impeachment, confusing to me. Certainly there were other factors like the Young The Twisted Essay spread of pornography enabled by technology. Still denying the importance of the pill just seems weird.

If sex does not lead to children then why wait for marriage? The kind of relationship required for sex then got to be less and syndrom, less serious until it was accepted with no relationship at all. Is any of this controversial? I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the Boy With Essay sexual revolution (I am not even sure the name is apt), but if you google DID THE PILL CAUSE THE SEXUAL REVOLUTION you will find plenty of good arguments that it did not. I don't think this is the right place to debate what caused the sexual revolution

I agree and this is why I cautioned James to use the condom example in his original post. As you can see, it has already de-railed this entire comment thread. I offered to change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less! What is an author to do? ;) I offered to change the example, but you went ahead and published anyway - a whole day earlier than you promised, no less!

What is an young male horse, author to do? ;) This is simply not true, James. As I explain above, on Monday, August 19, I sent you an email saying I'm planning to launch the three-part series [on lying] tomorrow (8/20). Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I posted it on The Twisted, Wednesday, just as promised. There are people who think the pill is a good thing and clinton's, the sexual revolution is Young Boy With Finger Essay, a bad thing. I saw some things by people in that category trying to make that case. I would not call them good arguments. Young Male Called? It seems most who say both of Boy With The Twisted Finger them are good or both of them are bad take for granted a significant cause and effect. But when you say artificial contraception you don't just mean the pill.

Casti Connubii was published in 1930. That was in response to a mini sexual revolution in the early 1900's. I think Brandon demonstrated the prophetic nature of HV in The Corrections Essay, his long quote from it above. Would love to hear how contraception leads to abortion and divorce. Contraception has a failure rate. What happens next? Contraception facilitates fornication and adultery.

What happens next? The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. Do you really think people didn't have affairs before the advent of effective prophylactics? I'll tell you, a bastard breaks up a marriage faster than most things. Of course, so do the Finger stresses of unwanted children within marriage, or the transmission of System Essay diseases. Hi, Josh--your question was how does contraception lead to abortion and The Twisted, divorce. I think I just answered it. Contraception use generally implies you don't want a kid nine months after you have sex.

When contraception *fails* and you don't want a kid nine months later, you get an abortion. This is all particularly true in cases of Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated fornication and adultery. Jim, what you showed was that sex can lead to abortion and in certain circumstances divorce. Contraception reduces the chance of Essay those possible outcomes of sex. C.f. the seatbelts example I gave you above.

Nope. When you give teenagers contraceptives, you are giving them permission to tourette syndrom definition have sex. Teenagers (and adults with the mentality of teens) are irresponsible by nature, so both their sex and contraception use are irresponsible. This means contraception failure. This means pregnancy.

Then comes abortion or children without fathers. If teenagers are irresponsible by nature, then they will have sex regardless of contraceptives. Young The Twisted Essay? Contraceptives would then only tourette definition reduce pregnancies. Let's have some evidence for your claims. In the Young Boy With The Twisted 1950s, teenage sex was the exception. Now, it is much more the norm. Young Male Called? Why the change?

You've been thoroughly indoctrinated by Planned Parenthood. The failure rate for contraception is rather lower than the failure rate for unprotected sex. This is like arguing that seat belts have a failure rate so we shouldn't promote their usage. But you're presenting a false dichotomy. Young Boy With The Twisted Essay? By suggesting the only two options are condoms or unprotected sex, you're implying people *have* to engage in risky sex and can't help it, and that those are the only two options. A third option--and a better solution--would be to promote sex within monogamous, faithful marriages, sex that doesn't need to young called be protected from Young Boy With, anything. No dichotomy, I was just pointing out that Jim's analysis was wrong. People can have sex or not have sex.

The former leads to ancient of mesopotamia babies. Young The Twisted Finger? (Excepting anal, oral, etc. which clearly don't lead to young abortions and Boy With Finger, divorces.) Among people who have sex, there are various habits that can reduce the chance of unwanted children. Contraceptives are essentially the best. They are a form of non-risky sex. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. People who want to be monogamous partners inside marriage are fine. But you present a dichotomy by pretending that is the only valid or safe option. It's simply not. Lot's of monogamous, faithfully married couples use protection. What are they protecting themselves from? Mostly from unwanted pregnancies.

I.e. both from unwanted children and System Operators Essay, from abortions. Young Finger Essay? There are also cases where one partner has a disease they don't want to pass to the other. Facilitating fornication is a good thing. Facilitating fornication is tourette syndrom definition, a good thing. Out of Young Boy With The Twisted Essay curiosity, do you have a young daughter? fornication. I have to laugh. It's like we're in ancient kingdom of mesopotamia, the middle ages! Would love to hear how contraception leads to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay abortion and divorce. Assuming your question is genuine and not facetious, you'll find the Communication first part of your answer here: A Deeper Look at Contraception and Finger Essay, Abortion . Your link is broken Brandon. When James first submitted his article I warned him that Catholics would be quick to refute this claim, which isn't necessary to his argument and draws attention away from tourette syndrom, it.

For one thing, the experts on this topic seem to completely disagree with James. Young Finger? The non-Catholic, pro-condom, senior Harvard researched Edward C. Green, director of the AIDS Prevention Research Project at bill the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, says: The pope is correct [about condoms']. Young? or to put it a better way, the best evidence we have supports the tourette syndrom popes comments. He stresses that condoms have been proven to not be effective at the level of population. Finger Essay? There is clinton's impeachment, a consistent association shown by The Twisted Finger Essay, our best studies, including the U.S.-funded Demographic Health Surveys, between greater availability and use of young called condoms and higher (not lower) HIV-infection rates. Young The Twisted Essay? This may be due in part to a phenomenon known as risk compensation, meaning that when one uses a risk-reduction technology such as condoms, one often loses the benefit (reduction in risk) by compensating or taking greater chances than one would take without the risk-reduction technology. Green expressed this fact even more simply, stating: We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates. Those wanting more should read his op-ed piece in the Washington Post titled The Pope May Be Right.

The Pope May Be Right. The Corrections? something about that Washington Post title made me chuckle. Brandon, this is disingenuous to the point of dishonesty. From the article you linked: In a 2008 article in Young Boy With The Twisted Essay, Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a. sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often. aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of clinton's impeachment new infections.

in the Young The Twisted generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to impeachment change that behavior. Boy With Essay? Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Also note: . that condom promotion has worked in syndrom, countries such as Thailand and Cambodia. disingenuous to the point of dishonesty The unofficial motto of Strange Notions! i.e., the problem is not enough people using condoms despite efforts to change that behavior. The article says, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of Young widespread and tourette syndrom definition, often aggressive promotion. Which means that the real problem is not that there aren't enough people using them, but that they are being used inconsistently . Could the Pope have anything to do with that? Sure! Perhaps he can persuade the The Twisted Finger inconsistent condom user to abstain from the behavior which requires the use of clinton's a condom.

The Pope should stay out of public health advice. Why should one assume that the pope couldn't do it in private? The pope has the right to Young Boy With Essay speak on matters of faith and morals. Ancient Of Mesopotamia? Public health often has a moral dimension, so he has a prefect right, in fact an Boy With The Twisted Essay, obligation, to speak. He is also informed. I have a right to speak on matters of faith and morals.

I don't know why someone should pay more attention to clinton's impeachment the pope than to me. I think we both deserve the The Twisted Essay same amount of attention: whatever attention our arguments warrant. Not quite. You have no right to speak to Catholics nor have you any standing to speak as one world leader to other world leaders. On the other hand, neither you nor I have thirteen years of formation in kingdom of mesopotamia, faith and morals, a doctorate in theology, thousands of The Twisted Finger hours of experience dealing with people on these matters, many learned advisers, and two thousand years of experience to draw from.

I may not have standing but I definitely have a right to called speak to Catholics and everyone else in Young Boy With Finger, the public square about anything I like, at tourette syndrom definition least in this country (the UK). Hopefully in your country, too. They likewise have a right to Young Boy With Essay pay attention to me or to ignore me. Frankly, I don't care much about the credentials of the thirteen years of formation plus doctorates, etc., if the kingdom arguments are bad. Essay? Just listing credentials isn't an argument at all. Humility is of mesopotamia, truth. Well, the current pope used to ride the bus to work.

I have a lot of respect for that. Here's the question. Young Boy With? To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? Dr. Edward Green agreed with the pope (to a certain extent, at least) that condoms had not been helpful in fighting AIDS in Africa. However, Green said that the use of condoms in the brothels of bill clinton's impeachment Thailand was effective. Is it morally wrong to urge prostitutes in the brothels of Thailand to insist their customers use condoms? If there is really no hope of eliminating the brothels of Thailand, is it morally wrong to urge those who run and work in Boy With The Twisted Finger, the brothels to syndrom definition do something that will save the lives of the prostitutes, their customers, and their customers' wives?

Remember that Aquinas famously thought prostitution should be tolerated (although not supported). He thought the elimination of Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay prostitution would lead to greater evils. Isn't it consistent with Catholic thought today that some evils may be tolerated? And would an attempt to mitigate some of the negative side effects of a tolerated evil be cooperation with evil? The problem with backing the pope in his comments about condoms not being effective in certain situations is that the pope would (it seems) object to the use of condoms even if they would stop the System AIDS epidemic dead in its tracks.

To what extent should public health policy be determined by Catholic teaching? In my opinion, if properly understood, completely. However, this complete understanding of Essay Catholic teaching would include when Catholic teaching has nothing to definition say about the matter. The argument is not dishonest at all. In Africa, HIV is spread through high-risk promiscuous relations in which the Young Essay partners refuse to use condoms on principle. The solution the article advocates is tourette syndrom, not to persuade people even more aggressively to use condoms but to stop these promiscuous sexual relations. Finger? Thailand and of mesopotamia, Cambodia are irrelevant since the condom use in regulated brothels, not among the general population. No, the solution advocated is a combined approach of reducing risky behavior. That includes using condoms consistently when having sex.

Now, an honest presentation of the Young Boy With Finger argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. But since the real problem is people having sex with multiple inconsistently protected partners, it's obvious that the tourette syndrom Pope's abstinence and monogamy advocacy has failed much harder. Thailand and Cambodia are not irrelevant; the Pope's stance is not that condoms are okay in east-Asia but not Africa. Now, an honest presentation of the argument would be that condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa. This is not true. As Green notes, consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion , to produce a measurable slowing of new infections in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, you say condom advocacy has had limited effectiveness in Africa.

But according to Green's research, it would be more accurate to say condom advocacy has been ineffective . Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to the quote you pulled. Also, to Young Essay judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in the absence of advocacy. Brandon, read what I wrote again and then modify your comment above to reflect that what I said is exactly true according to Communication Essay the quote you pulled. You're right. Mea culpa. I misunderstood your point. It seems we agree that spreading and advocating condoms in Africa has not reduced the Young Boy With The Twisted Finger spread of disease.

This has been my main contention since the beginning of this thread. Also, to judge if advocacy was ineffective we would want to know what happens in the absence of Essay advocacy. Ah, now this is Boy With The Twisted Finger, interesting, since it implicitly suggests we should stop advocating condoms, if only for scientific reasons, in order to gauge whether other methods might be more effective. Fine by me. Condoms don't seem to be working, so we should try something else.

Again, this is precisely what the Annotated Bibliography Essay Pope said about the Africa situation. I appreciate the correction. Well, I agree that if we were running a science experiment with no ethical concerns we would want to run each 'treatment' separately and then in Young The Twisted Finger Essay, combinations. Obviously that's not something I suggest we do though. We actually do have evidence that condom's work well when used properly. So of course does abstinence, although I think the evidence that we can get people to be consistently abstinent is rather worse than that we can get them to male horse use condoms. So, again, the evidence isn't that condoms don't seem to Boy With The Twisted Finger be working, it's that in one region of the world people aren't using them consistently enough to offset the risky behavior that abounds. The expert consensus, from what I can tell, is that we should advocate a multi-pronged approach. People need comprehensive education, they should be encouraged to young called limit partners if they aren't going to use condoms, they should have condoms widely available and The Twisted Essay, their usage should be properly understood and promoted when people do have sex.

Also, let's bear in Essay, mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. Also, let's bear in mind that condoms have other benefits besides limiting HIV infections. They have other dangers besides limiting the spread of HIV. These were outlined clearly way back in 1968 by Pope Paul VI: Let [us] first consider how easily [contraception] could open wide the way for marital infidelity and a general lowering of moral standards. Young Boy With Essay? Not much experience is ancient kingdom, needed to be fully aware of human weakness and to Young Boy With Essay understand that human beingsand especially the young, who are so exposed to temptationneed incentives to keep the moral law, and it is an young, evil thing to Young Boy With The Twisted Essay make it easy for them to System break that law. Young Boy With Finger? Another effect that gives cause for alarm is that a man who grows accustomed to Communication the use of contraceptive methods may forget the reverence due to a woman, and, disregarding her physical and emotional equilibrium, reduce her to being a mere instrument for Finger Essay the satisfaction of tourette syndrom his own desires, no longer considering her as his partner whom he should surround with care and affection. Finally, careful consideration should be given to the danger of this power passing into the hands of those public authorities who care little for the precepts of the moral law. Who will blame a government which in Boy With Finger, its attempt to Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Bibliography Essay resolve the problems affecting an The Twisted Essay, entire country resorts to the same measures as are regarded as lawful by married people in the solution of a particular family difficulty? Who will prevent public authorities from favoring those contraceptive methods which they consider more effective? Should they regard this as necessary, they may even impose their use on young male called, everyone.

It could well happen, therefore, that when people, either individually or in family or social life, experience the Young Boy With The Twisted Essay inherent difficulties of the Communication divine law and are determined to avoid them, they may give into the hands of public authorities the power to intervene in Finger, the most personal and male called, intimate responsibility of husband and wife. All of this has proved true over Young Boy With the last fifty years. This is kingdom, disingenuous to the point of dishonesty Really? You know with certainty I'm giving a false impression, on purpose, to the point of deception? I simply cited the leading American expert on this issue with basically no commentary. Next time, please focus on Young Finger, the quote instead of my motives.

In regards to bill your own quote, it seems *you* have left out Young Boy With Finger, pertinent information. Green notes that in Thailand and Cambodia, the condom promotion has worked primarily because most HIV is transmitted through commercial sex and where it has been possible to enforce a 100 percent condom use policy in brothels. The problem is that this is a rare and isolated situation. Most STDs spread in Africa the the West are not shared through brothels. Also, even while aware of those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. He notes that condoms *haven't* curbed HIV in Africa while faithful mutual monogamy or at least reduction in numbers of partners, especially concurrent ones has.

Finally, Green's point in saying consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion was to prove his thesis. His point was not that *we need more condoms* since people aren't using them. It's that even after dumping boatlods of condoms into Africa, and doing everything possible to young male horse called encourage their use, they still do not curb HIV because of risk compensation, relational dynamics, and other factors. In other words, the world has done everything it can to promote condoms as a solution in Africa. But it's inadequate. Boy With? It doesn't work. While attractive on paper, it fails in System Operators Essay, practice.

This is exactly what Pope Benedict suggested and Edward Green agrees. Your motive is to support the Church's position. You are disingenuous for leaving out important context. Also, even while aware of Young Boy With Essay those two exceptions, Green still maintains that condoms are not the best solution. Don't misunderstand me; I am not anti-condom.-Green. Again, you are being disingenuous. Green supports condom usage. His view is horse, that it is Young Boy With Finger, part of a combined effort to reduce risky behavior.

Obviously that includes reducing the number of sexual partners if one isn't going to use condoms consistently. Bill Impeachment? (Even if you are, reducing partners helps the odds of course.) Note that Green's examples of successful programs include 'faithful polygamy' and monogamous relationships but nothing about marriage per se. Cambodia and The Twisted, Thailand are indeed sociologically different from Africa but they aren't exceptions, they are examples of Disease: Bibliography Essay condom usage working despite otherwise risky behavior. So if the Pope's position is that we should promote condom-usage along with other risk-reducing behaviors, then he agrees with the consensus of experts. Here's a thought. What if it were shown that actually, recommending condom use does reduce the Young Finger rate of HIV infection and that telling people to bill clinton's impeachment avoid condoms results in higher rates. But also that the use of contraception is Young Finger, a sin. Horse Called? What would you say then about the morality of the Pope's actions? I admit that I am not familiar with the research, but I say this because it does seem to me like Catholics cannot accept this good public health advice because of an arbitrary command of their God. The Centre for Young The Twisted Disease Control says 'Latex condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

If anyone feels the need to talk about the issue of tourette syndrom definition HIV and condoms, the only moral thing to say is that, if used properly, they can be very effective in preventing the spread. That is my moral position. The problem with touting Edward C. Green as an authority who backs the pope is that Green fully supports the use of condoms where they have been shown to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger be effective, for example, in the brothels of Thailand. Green is making an argument based on what works, and he supports the ancient use of Young condoms where they work. He fully supports the ABC approach (abstain, be faithful, use condoms). The pope and the Catholic Church do not support condom use even when and where it is effective and Disease: Annotated Bibliography Essay, can save lives. This is because the Church can never say, don't fornicate, but if you do, use condoms. I don't see why not. Can't the Young Boy With The Twisted Essay Church say, Don't sin, but if you do, go to confession? That is not an endorsement of sinning.

Can't a Catholic teacher of kingdom of mesopotamia Driver's Ed say, Of course, you should never drink to excess, but if you do drink too much, don't drive! Is that a mixed message? Is the concept of having a designated driver evil, because it allows everyone but one person to drink to excess? The Church is always using the excuse about Young Finger Essay, not wanting to send mixed messages. Communication System Essay? The Church should be able to Young The Twisted Finger communicate well enough with adults that its messages are clear. Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins.

Why can't it say, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage that risks transmitting a deadly virus is two sins. Ironically, this is almost exactly what Pope Benedict said a couple years back in his book-length interview, Light of the World. When asked about whether two gay men engaged in intercourse, one of them HIV-positive, could licitly use a condom to prevent the spread of disease, the pope, while not necessarily endorsing it as moral behavior, said it would be a step in a more moral direction. His point was that in tourette syndrom definition, that specific situation, the condom is not a contraceptive device. Therefore it doesn't commit the sin of distorting the sexual act. It's clear the *only* reason two people would use a condom in that situation is to prevent the spread of Young The Twisted Finger Essay disease, a completely noble desire. I think your analogy breaks down at the very beginning. The parallel to Don't fornicate, but if you do, use a condom is tourette definition, not Don't sin, but if you do, go to Boy With confession because going to System Operators confession is not a further sin but condom use is. Also, consider, Sex outside of marriage is a sin, but having sex outside of marriage with a condom is two sins.

. Boy With The Twisted Essay? . . . because going to Disease: Essay confession is Young Finger, not a further sin but condom use is. Are you honestly saying that those having sex outside of marriage who use contraceptives are more sinful than those having sex outside of marriage who don't use contraceptives. First, I don't know the calculus of multiple mortal sins and Operators, don't really want to go there. I also don't know that it is a sin to conceive a child outside of wedlock. The act that causes the conception certainly is a sin, but I don't know that actually getting pregnant is another sin. Young The Twisted Finger Essay? If it isn't, then yes, fornication with contraception is Communication System, worse than fornication without. Brandon. you're ignoring important points of that Washington Post Article. (Green's) comments are only about the question of condoms working to Finger stem the spread of AIDS in Africa's generalized epidemics -- nowhere else. ie. not necessarily true anywhere else, nor do they address one way or the other how condoms might have had an effect on other issues such as unwanted pregnancies. In a 2008 article in Science called Reassessing HIV Prevention 10 AIDS experts concluded that consistent condom use has not reached a sufficiently high level, even after many years of widespread and often aggressive promotion, to produce a measurable slowing of new infections in the generalized epidemics of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Which seems to imply that access to the physical condom alone without the proper efforts to educate people about using them consistently might be the problem. It's like giving a computer to an accountant to better keep their books without training them how to use it. Tourette Syndrom Definition? Efforts to provide proper and thorough sex education to 3rd world countries have been stifled by the moral teachings of the church. True that in this very specific instance the lack of education combined with risk compensation social stigmata that a condom represents a lack of trust have shown that the Young availability of condoms alone appears to not have had the positive effects seen elsewhere, so in syndrom definition, a sense the church can claim a truth victory or sorts in a very narrow sense. Essay? But one sample, one that has a variety of additional contributing factors and is specific to simply HIV infection rates, is not indicative of a trend, especially in bill, light of the many examples where contraception proper education have helped lower rates. To ignore the effects elsewhere or leave out points that provide a more thorough picture via proper context is deceptive, dishonest and ironic in Essay, a conversation about the ethics of lying. I want to ancient kingdom take a brief moment to address this question, because I am disappointed as to how this has been dealt with here on this site. Young Boy With The Twisted Finger? Brandon, as he notes below, advised me to revise this passage because he felt it would derail the comments. I trusted the intelligence and good will of the audience, and the skill of the moderators of young male horse called this site, to redirect people to the purpose of the Young The Twisted Finger piece, but also agreed to revise the passage if Brandon thought it would derail the Disease: Annotated Bibliography conversation on lying.

I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. I am further surprised to see Brandon not encourage commenters to Young Finger stay on topic, and rather to horse see him perpetuate the discussion here by Boy With The Twisted Essay, selectively quoting some articles relevant to a small subset of the Disease: Essay contraception issue. This has led, as he predicted, to a fruitless side discussion in which quotes from scientists are mined by Young The Twisted Finger, Catholic apologists to support their pre-conceived conclusion (for instance, I can find no non-Catholic source whatsoever for the quote, attributed to System Operators Edward C Green, that We have found no consistent associations between condom use and lower HIV-infection rates.). Therefore, I'm not going to engage in the discussion of contraception here. I will, however, make a statement relevant to my argument regarding lying: Note that my analogy was intended to demonstrate the weaknesses of a rules-based morality when compared with one which recognizes moral complexity and is open to renegotiation in the light of new evidence.

That Kevin, above, asks for evidence to support my claim - seemingly in the hope that I will not be able to provide any - is an ironic demonstration of my point. Young The Twisted? If he accepts that we should make our judgment regarding the ethics of contraception based on evidence as to whether a given approach is harming people or not, he has already accepted my main point: that ethics should be based on the welfare of persons, and not on preconceived ethical rules. He has, in effect, taken a Humanist position to ethics by making this very inquiry. The Catholic approach to the issue - even if it is the correct approach - frequently proceeds from a different set of assumptions about morality. Essay? Namely, such approaches often appeal to god-given rules, or to a teleological conception regarding the god-given purpose of various human behaviors.

Note, for The Twisted instance, that some of the comments below from Catholic apologists turn on some conception of what sex is for, rather than whether it is beneficial to people. This is not a question which has any relevance to the Humanist: behaviors do not have a purpose in male horse, that sense, and Boy With, the only horse called questions which are relevant relate, ethically speaking, are whether the behaviors promote welfare or not. To ask whether a more permissive attitude toward contraception has increased or decreased human welfare is to Young Boy With The Twisted Essay ask a Humanist question - one very much in line with the ethical approach I outline in my piece above. I guess you assume the two will give different answers. That is if we follow God perfectly or do what is best perfectly we won't end up doing the same thing. My feeling is syndrom, that what God wants and what is Young Boy With The Twisted Finger, best are the same thing. Now a humanist has a huge problem is defining human welfare. It is a word with embedded morality. To use it to define what is moral becomes a bit of a question begging exercise. But if you defined welfare or goodness the same way God does you would find that God's commands don't violate that.

The question then becomes which system is likely to do better. That is are we likely to get closer to the ideal by discerning what is good for human welfare or are we likely to get closer to that same ideal by Essay, asking what would be pleasing to God? It seems to me that God's commands are given precisely because we are likely to get the answer wrong without them. We are told not to lie because we tend to lie. We rationalize that behavior based on humanist principles and Young Finger Essay, end up in immorality. Rationalization seem like it kills humanism. That is because we all know we can twist logic to convince ourselves what is bad is actually good. You suggest yourself Catholics have done that on The Corrections, the contraception question.

The point is Young, that humanism fails unless you are above that sort of thing. I don't think any human is. I think you might be misunderstanding Catholic moral theology. Natural law moral principles are based on human nature. Acting against young called, human nature will harm human beings. That is the legitimate link between moral principles and their effects on human welfare. You should not be surprised if some Catholic moral reasoning sounds humanistic. We have been humanists since the Incarnation. Pope Paul VII pointed out the harm that would come to society if the natural law truth about Young The Twisted Finger, human sexuality was violated. Principles and their effects go hand in Disease: Annotated Bibliography Essay, hand.

No, I think I understand it quite well. I am arguing that the concept of human nature is a problematic and unnecessary one. Welfare should be the guide. We need not appeal to Young Boy With The Twisted a teleological conception of human nature - which is almost always highly selective in bill, its description of humanity - to make ethical judgments. Natural law is another example of an Young Finger, a priori ethical concept which has no relevance and warps ethical reasoning. Essay? We must take human beings as we find them, and ask what promotes our welfare, regardless of any preconceived notions of our nature. So you are another one of these throw everything out and start over with an untested theory which will lead to who knows what horrors? How will you know what is welfare and what is a crime against humanity unless you have an adequate idea of what a human being is?

I'm not sure where you got that from my response. My argument is to use our best evidence drawn from Boy With, millennia of ethical experience. Far from ancient, throwing everything out we must use everything we have learnt throughout a history of oppression and the struggle for Boy With Finger greater freedom. As for kingdom determining what promotes human welfare, one of the great things about Boy With Finger Essay, people is that they are able to System articulate what they desire, and Young The Twisted Finger Essay, we are able to think through many of the factors which may be shaping their desires. I do not think many ethical questions to be as mysterious as some philosophers like to make them. Human beings are animals with basic physical and clinton's, psychological desires, and satisfying those should be our first ethical priority.

After that, we must seek to create societies which maximize each individual's opportunity to flourish while minimizing the potential for the actions of one to Finger Essay harm another. I don't find this a particularly complex philosophical proposition - it is the praxis which is tourette definition, hard. So what's your problem with natural law? Here's a practical problem. Is it moral for The Twisted a woman to ancient of mesopotamia terminate the life of her unborn child who has Down Syndrome? As to Young Boy With Essay the first question, a lot hinges on The Corrections, who's interpretation of Essay natural law you take. Some versions might be compatible with my ethical outlook, while others are certainly not. As for your second question, I think that depends on a lot of contextual factors: most significantly the age of the developing human.

No fixed rule is going to be able to give an answer which is generalizable to Cardiovascular all situations. How will you know what is welfare and what is a crime against Young Essay, humanity unless you have an adequate idea of what a human being is? I'm not sure of the force of the question. Presumably determining which objects merit our moral regard, and to what degree, is a question which must be answered by tourette syndrom, every meta ethical approach. My response is that evidence and reason is the only way to come to a defensible answer to those questions. I read your answer as It depends. To defend the human being against Young Essay, raw power (in this case a defenseless unborn defective child), we need a foundation for clinton's impeachment human dignity.

Can your meta ethic come up with one? I was surprised then, that immediately after my offering to revise this passage, and before the stated publication date, my piece was published, without my having made the modification suggested. To be clear, James, this is somewhat misleading. You sent me the article on July 11. The Twisted? I emailed you three days later about the contraception line, noting that many Catholics would disagree and that I'm worried it will divert attention from the rest of your great article. Finally, more than a month later, on August 17, you replied saying, Where are we on this article? Is it published already? I might be able to find another example, but this one seems to me absolutely indisputable if you look at the facts. On Monday, August 19, I replied saying I'm planning to launch the three-part series tomorrow (8/20). Deacon Jim's article will go first, yours on Wednesday (8/21), and Leah's on Thursday (8/22). I also noted, If I don't hear from you before Thursday, I'll run your piece as-is.

But if you'd like to tourette edit that part, just send me an Boy With The Twisted Essay, updated version and I'd be happy to make the change. You responded a few hours later saying, Ill come up with a different example while I examine these studies in Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Bibliography, more detail. But I didn't hear from you over the next three days and Young Finger Essay, assumed you had simply chosen not to alter your original article. I published it as-is on Wednesday, August 21, just as I said I would. Therefore, it's misleading to suggest I posted your article immediately after you offered to revise this passage, as if somehow I didn't give you ample freedom (and encouragement) to remove it. And it's simply wrong to male horse suggest I posted your piece before the stated publication date. I told you I would post it on Wednesday (8/21) and that's precisely when I posted it. So far no one seems to have any comments disagreeing with this Humanistic morality with respect to lying. I take it to Young Finger Essay mean that after two days of this series, the Catholic church isn't sure how do deal with lying all the young horse called time and neither are humanists.

But both seem to think it is immoral to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger lie when there are negative human consequences rather than avoiding negative human consequences. The Corrections Essay? Where is the theist aspect of Young Boy With Finger theistic morality? What do you mean by theistic aspect of theistic morality? How do theists apply morality different than humanists when it comes to lying. We are constantly told that theistic morality is bill impeachment, superior because it somehow is based on Young The Twisted Essay, objective morality? Well where is this objective morality? How do theists access it in order to know when to lie? We agree, it is wrong to male horse kill, unless it is not. Young Boy With The Twisted? It is wrong to lie, unless it is justified.

The justifications are always human. What is wrong with the Operators Essay moral approach to lying set out above? What is missing from it, and why is the Boy With Finger Essay missing piece important? Let's go back to basics. The Catholic Church believes in the natural law, which every human being can know by properly looking at the reality of human nature.

So there is no reason why a humanist could not discover it. In fact, we could say that the first humanists to discover the ancient kingdom of mesopotamia natural law were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. This is the objective reality that Catholics and right-minded humanists refer to. Verry good questions--as I mentioned in my post, I really don't think we Catholics and humanists/atheists are too far apart on this one. Instead, we're all needing to apply basic moral principles to specific concrete cases.

I'm looking forward to part three of the series tomorrow for additional insights. And, as the above discussion of The Twisted Finger contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the ancient kingdom of mesopotamia evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. What is so interesting about these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! And, as the Finger Essay above discussion of ancient kingdom of mesopotamia contraception shows, a Humanistic approach reigns there too: consider the evidence, and do what works to reduce human suffering. Young The Twisted? What is so interesting about these debates is how deeply Humanistic ethical assumptions have pervaded even the mightiest bastions of faith! Or perhaps the other way around :) Catholics had been reducing suffering for centuries before Humanism showed up on the scene. That may be true (and I'm perfectly willing to accept it) - but my point was meta-ethical, not practical. My point is that the tourette method of ethical reasoning on display here is Humanistic, and Young Finger Essay, that this is in very stark contrast to the types of ethical reasoning traditionally related to religious perspectives. Horse? If you read the sort of ethical reasoning on display from many leaders in traditional faith communities today - even progressive ones - you will often hear methods of ethical reasoning which do not put human welfare at Finger Essay the center. And that, to me, is Communication System, a distinct problem.

Two points: Croft's attempt to define a lie is unnecessarily awkward. And although good will is an Boy With Finger Essay, excellent way to explain the principle, there remains unreasonable bias against the lie. I would also say that this is a topic that should only be discussed by accomplished liars. A lie is an intentional deceit. Attempting to relate it to ancient kingdom what, if anything, is spoken muddies the The Twisted definition. I have, on occasion, deliberately brought my credibility and/or impartiality into question and then flatly stated the The Corrections Essay completely accurate and relevant truth. It's an especially effective method, leaving your adversaries without the The Twisted slightest doubt that they have the full truth in Essay, mind despite your best effort to The Twisted Finger mislead them. On the second point. You inform your allies and you mislead your adversaries. Bill Impeachment? If your design is moral, then so are your statements when earnestly made to Young The Twisted Essay reach those moral objectives. With this said, it may at first seem that you should lie half the time and be accurate the other half, but in fact, the bias goes to System Operators Essay accuracy for three reasons: First, you talk to your allies more often than your adversaries.

Second, when talking to you adversaries, many of your statements should be accurate so that your lies will be believed. Third, if the Boy With The Twisted Finger situation is ambiguous, leading with useful, accurate, but safe information is more likely to lead to a friendlier (more ally-filled) world. One more item. If I have convinced you that there is Cardiovascular Disease: Essay, no moral issue with lying, you may still prefer to firmly hold to Boy With The Twisted Essay the position that lying is very bad and bill clinton's impeachment, should only be used in the most extreme situations. Not only will this enhance your credibility in some circles, it may influence others to tell the truth more often themselves. I would also say that this is a topic that should only Young Boy With Finger Essay be discussed by accomplished liars.

But then why would we believe their answers? I don't think I attempted to define a lie. Ancient Kingdom? Indeed this was one of my primary points! It seems that the Young Boy With The Twisted Essay big difference between the Catholic and non-religious position on this issue is one of authority. Ancient Of Mesopotamia? The end-point is the same for now, but may not be in the future. James Croft says that lying is The Twisted Finger Essay, acceptable in cases when good will runs up against truthfulness.

Jim Russell says that lying is acceptable in Essay, some cases justified by the common good (or natural law), as long as no official Church declaration is Boy With, made to the contrary. Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is Essay, always wrong, will you change your mind on lying? Any Catholic who agrees with Jim Russell but disagrees with my assessment, answer this question: If Vatican III (or whatever new ecumenical council) dogmatically declares that lying is always wrong, will you change your mind on Young Boy With, lying? That's a very interesting question, Paul. I'm partial to Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography Augustine/Aquinas/most of Catholic tradition on this--in believing that lying is The Twisted Finger, intrinsically and Essay, always wrong--so such a pronouncement wouldn't affect me. But I'd be interested to hear from other Catholics. I'm reminded in Boy With Finger, this discussion of sitting in a session with a Buddhist scholar, who, when peppered with a mess of ethical conundrums introduced me to the phrase, killing the fish to feed the dog. His point was that the complexities of life present us with moral tragedies where we're coerced between choosing wrong and wrong. The challenge (from his perspective) is to avoid either the bill clinton's impeachment complacency of patting ourselves on the back for Boy With The Twisted our cleverness in The Corrections, using moral calculus for minimum suffering, or the despondency of obsessing over individual tragedies. Young Boy With Finger? These things happen, and they have consequences that need to be dealt with.

I have to agree with the young male called point of Young The Twisted Essay view represented here. The Corrections Essay? Judging the ethicality of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger a lie should be in a case by case scenario. Essay? You cannot simply settle for one rule on lying such as Deacon Jims; there are instances where this rule conflicts with morals for it to be true all the time. Young The Twisted? In the textbook, Ethics in Human Communication by Richard Johannesen, Kathleen Valde, and Karen Whedbee, they discuss the excuses usually used to make a lie permissible. Among the higher goods frequently used to justify a lie are: avoiding harm to ourselves or others; producing benefits for others; promoting fairness and System Essay, justice; and protecting the truth by counteracting another lie, by furthering some more important truth, or by preserving the confidence of others in our own truthfulness (Johannesen et al., 104). Bringing these cases into the light, they can be seen as ethical or unethical in a case by case situation. Ethical or not, we as humans use these excuses; That is just how we have grown to act. Johannesen, R. L., Valde, K. S., Whedbee, K. E. (2008). Ethics in Human Communication. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press. Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible? Who gets to decide on when an excuse is sufficient to make a lie permissible?

If you don't make the Young Boy With Essay decision for yourself, who makes it for you? The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. The religionist however has a framework of presumed objective moral imperatives, a narrative of ultimate accountability, of being created in kingdom of mesopotamia, the image of God, of the inherent value and meaning of creation, of ultimate accountability. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. The decision maker actualizes the decision in both instances. I'm not sure what that's supposed to mean, but it sounds Aristotelian, and I don't accept Aristotelianism. The non-believer generally operates without that framework. Not entirely. Most of us non-believers are quite committed to the notion of an individual's ultimate accountability for Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay their behavior. Ultimately accountable in what way?

Accountable to what or to whom? We all live in one society or another. Those societies hold us to account. I don't think that is The Corrections Essay, what is usually meant by ultimate accountability. Aren't human societies fairly ephemeral, in the grand scheme of the Finger universe?

I see no reason to think the universe has any grand scheme. In this context, I take ultimate to mean final. Essay? I believe society is the final arbiter of my life. To fulfill that role, ephemeral though my society could be, it needs to survive only Boy With Finger as long as I do. I believe society is the final arbiter of my life Even if society judges you unfairly?

(Or is society's judgement fair by bill impeachment, definition in your view?) For most of my life, society has been judging me in ways that I haven't liked at all. It would be really nice if I could look forward to another life in Boy With The Twisted Essay, which I would be compensated for that, but I can't believe it's going to happen just because of how much it please me if it did. Whether you will be in any sense compensated is really a separate question, I think. My question is whether you think that society's judgement of your life is / will be (at least partly) incorrect. If society's judgement of you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. If society's judgement of bill clinton's impeachment you is at least partly incorrect, that logically entails some higher standard, according to which society's judgements may themselves be judged. It might or might not be useful to call it a higher standard.

I don't believe it is Young Boy With Finger, a transcendental standard. Call it what you want. If society can be wrong in syndrom definition, its judgements of people, then there must be some vantage point, or perspective, or whatever, from which it is possible to judge society's judgements. Young Essay? So again, call it what you want, it still logically implies that society is not the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the decisions that you make with your life. I meant that society was final arbiter in the sense of having the last word during my lifetime, since I don't have the means to oppose any decision it makes. A subsequent generation, if it should be aware of how society treated me, might agree with my judgment that I was not fairly treated, but that won't do me any good now. I don't see how the judgment of any transcendent authority, even if there is one, could make a difference unless that authority has the power to The Corrections Essay give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for how I was treated in this one. But again, I'm not talking about Essay, whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the definition logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. Yes, OK, a future generation can potentially cast judgement on the judgements of the Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay present generation.

That's just kicking the can down the road. Is it possible that future generations will be wrong about you as well? If so, then your thinking logically implies some notion of wrongness that is The Corrections Essay, not tethered to what societies (past, present, and future) think. But again, I'm not talking about whether it does you any good. I'm just trying to flesh out the logical consequences of what you already believe, whether those consequences are good or bad. In my worldview, when it comes to The Twisted my ethical principles, the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. I'm not looking for any other validation because I see no reason to believe that another source of validation exists.

the only logical consequences that matter are whether they are consistent with everything else I believe. That's all that I'm trying to investigate. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Do you not see any logical inconsistency between. Society is the young male called final arbiter of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. Society could be wrong in its assessment of the rightness or wrongness of the way that I have lived my life. I see the apparent inconsistency.

I tried to resolve it. Perhaps my explanation lacked sufficient clarity. Ill try again. It goes to the sense of final arbiter where the sense has to do with the ontological status of ethical principles. If those principles exist independently of any human mind, then no human person or group of people can be the final arbiter of any ethical issue. But if those principles are, as I believe them to be, human judgments and Young The Twisted Essay, nothing more, then the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone elses judgment. Their judgment is Essay, final in that sense only. It did not mean final in the sense of no longer subject to dispute. In the Young Boy With Essay United States, the U.S.

Supreme Court is the final arbiter of constitutional disputes. At any given time, the Constitution means whatever a majority of the justices say it means. In 1896, the courts majority declared in Plessy v. Cardiovascular Bibliography? Ferguson that the Constitution neither contained nor implied any prohibition as such against Southern laws segregating the races. The courts ruling was, in effect, the final word on the matter until 1954. In that year, the same court, although comprising different people, had a contrary final word.

Prevailing public opinion nowadays is that the justices in 1896 were simply mistaken. A minority view is Young The Twisted, that Plessy was the right decision at the time, considering the nations historical racial situation, and only became wrong when the young nations racial attitudes became sufficiently enlightened. In either case, at the present moment in Boy With The Twisted Essay, history, the bill clinton's final word declares racial segregation to be constitutionally impermissible. Is there, or was there ever, an objective fact of the matter, such that that fact would be the actual final arbiter? I think not. The only Finger objective fact is that the kingdom of mesopotamia Constitution contains a certain statement in certain words including equal protection of the laws regarding limits to the authority of state governments. The meaning of Boy With that statement is for us, the young male users of the language in Young Essay, which it was written, to decide.

I can decide what it means to me, anyone else can decide what it means for them. Impeachment? The language belongs to none of Essay us individually. But we have agreed as a society that in certain situations, the only decision that matters is that of a majority of the justices currently serving on the Supreme Court. Any of us is free to tourette definition disagree with the court at any time. Many Americans disagree fervently with courts decision in Roe v. Wade , but the court had the Boy With Finger final word in 1973 and, for the time being, it remains the final word so far as the young male horse called law is concerned. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.

The interpretation of any legal document is a matter of judgment, and at any given time, somebodys judgment has to Young The Twisted be final, but we need not treat any final judgment as the only possible correct judgment, and we need not suppose that there is some objective fact as to what that correct judgment is. Judgments are more or less defensible, depending on bill impeachment, the persuasiveness of the Boy With Essay arguments offered in their support. Sometimes we need to let somebodya final arbiterhave the last word, but we remain free as individuals to disagree with the final arbiter; and, as time passes and bill clinton's, new people have to live with the consequences of the final arbiters decision, they can ask a new final arbiter to reconsider the previous decision. the final arbiter is whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone elses judgment. That is a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is it not? For the sake of argument, I'm open to the possibility that might does indeed make right, but let me first see if you want to create any white space between your position and the might makes right position. U.S. Supreme Court is the Young The Twisted final arbiter of constitutional disputes. Right. They can reject laws by appealing to young horse a document with greater authority, the Constitution. Legality does not have to imply moral acceptability.

Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of analogy that you can create here. We can rationally argue against Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, laws by appealing to male called the Constitution :: We can rationally argue that a state of affairs is immoral by appealing to . Young? what? Or is there no rational way to argue that a state of affairs is immoral, and we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in tourette syndrom, case of any disagreement, to make their judgment prevail over anyone elses judgment ? That is Boy With Finger Essay, a pretty clear articulation of might makes right, is it not? I can understand why it might seem so, but no, I dont believe it is. It would be might makes right if I were claiming that whatever decision was reached by the prevailing party was always the of mesopotamia right decision, but Im not claiming that. Legality does not have to Young The Twisted Essay imply moral acceptability. Right, that's why your comments about constitutionality seem irrelevant, unless there is some sort of analogy that you can create here. The analogy arises from the fact that legal decisions and moral decisions are both matters of judgment, not of fact.

We can rationally argue against laws by appealing to the Constitution. But the argument is over how the Constitution should be interpreted, and of mesopotamia, a matter of interpretation is a matter of judgment. We can rationally argue that a state of Young The Twisted Finger Essay affairs is immoral by clinton's, appealing to . what? To our moral values. If we believe human life has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to be morally unacceptable and others to be morally unacceptable. Likewise, if we believe that any diminution of human suffering has moral value, then we will judge certain states of affairs to be morally unacceptable, but if we believe that certain kinds of human suffering have moral value, then we will judge some of those same states of affairs to be morally acceptable.

Or is there no rational way to argue that a state of affairs is The Twisted Finger Essay, immoral, and male horse, we just call things immoral when they don't correspond to Young The Twisted the opinions of whichever person or group has the power, in case of any disagreement, to tourette syndrom make their judgment prevail over anyone elses judgment I have my own criteria for judging the moral acceptability of any state of affairs, and in general those criteria make no reference to the opinions of people in The Twisted, power. [We appeal to] our moral values. Aren't our moral values themselves based on judgements? Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? And if so, from what frame of reference can those judgements themselves be judged to tourette syndrom be wrong? Aren't our moral values themselves based on Young Boy With Essay, judgements? In my worldview, our moral values are themselves just judgments. Can't those judgements themselves be wrong? We do or don't value certain things and we live our lives accordingly. Operators? The result will be a certain quality of life.

If we find the quality of our lives unsatisfactory we should consider the possibility that we need to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger change our values. I think it's illogical to value things that make us unhappy. OK, so we can judge the way that you live your life by appealing to moral values, and we can judge those moral values by appealing to tourette syndrom the happiness that results when those values are pursued. In that case it sounds to me like the ultimate arbiter of the way that you live your life is you, since you are best able to assess your own happiness. Or do we need to The Twisted Finger Essay appeal to some sort of syndrom collective societal happiness? The interests of society are inseparable from my own interests. Yeah, I agree with that, as long as interests is sufficiently caveated. At a superficial level, I have an interest in eating a nice juicy steak a couple times a week. The Twisted? That carnivorous interest is pretty surely at odds with society's interest of reducing world hunger and preventing ecological catastrophe. Bill Impeachment? Of course, at a deeper level, I share those societal interests, and I think it makes sense to judge my superficial interests by appealing to Young Boy With Finger my deeper interests. Would you agree with that?

If so, I think the Bibliography Essay chain of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay command is shaping up along the lines of: 1. We can rationally judge the way you live your life by appealing to moral values. 2. Ancient Of Mesopotamia? We can rationally judge moral values by appealing to the consequences of pursuing those moral values, and Young, whether those consequences are in our interest. 3. We can rationally judge our superficial interests by appealing to some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to make that more precise, please do.) So if we are nearing then end of the line, then what is the nature of this deeper, more communally defined interest? Does this deeper societal interest correspond in any way to the neo-Platonic transcendentals of truth, love, justice, beauty, being? 3. Communication Operators Essay? We can rationally judge our superficial interests by appealing to some sort of deeper, more communally defined interest. (That's a bit vague, but I'm fine with some ambiguity; if you want to make that more precise, please do.) I'm OK with some vagueness. I think humanity's ethical instincts are still evolving, and so nobody should claim to have worked out an The Twisted Finger, ethical moral code in Essay, complete detail. I hesitate to Young Boy With Essay subordinate either personal or social interests to young male the other.

I probably need society more than society needs me, but a society that devalues the interests of any of its members won't be a maximally healthy society. There will be conflicts, but they need to judged case by case. unless that authority has the power to Young Finger give me a new life after this one and to compensate me for how I was treated in this one. What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? What if that authority does exist with those powers, would you be receptive to that judgement? I think it unlikely that I would have a choice.

Good point. Although the Communication System Essay way I understand it, denying that you should expect that judgement is the only way to receive the The Twisted harshest sentence. That's what I've often heard. Fortunately for my peace of mind, I've never also heard a good reason to believe it. Tourette Syndrom Definition? And even if it is true, there is nothing rational I can do about it. If, in the judgment of the ruler of the universe, my skepticism deserves eternal punishment, then people like me are simply without hope. Our doubt is, in effect, the unforgivable sin.

I am sorry to The Twisted Finger hear about Essay, that experience, Doug. Young Essay? I suppose that society in general and us Christians in particular can be very judgmental. That sense you have of bill clinton's impeachment justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Where does it come from? Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is it a call from somewhere, a call to come home? Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to those wishes. Boy With Finger Essay? They may be trying to tell us something. That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Why do you think these notions are not to be found in the Old Testament?

Firstly, I do think that there are traces of a need for justice and accountability in sections of the OT. The Israelites in captivity started sensing this need, a lot of the prophets hint at some retribution, some accountability in the future. This may not be in the traditional (to us) Heaven matrix, but the hints are there. Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. We are not made perfect, we are allowed to grow in that direction. Things are revealed to of mesopotamia us gradually, through science, through our consciousness and our consciences. Maybe those ideas had to be discovered, developed over time. Maybe those ideas had to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay be discovered, developed over definition time. In particular, maybe something unique in Finger, history happened between the OT and the NT that would have triggered an aha moment :-)

I'm not sure what you mean here, but New Testament times in my understanding stretch back to The Corrections include the events recounted in the New Testament, not just the Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay times in which the books of the kingdom New Testament were composed. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from The Twisted Essay, strains of Jewish thought after the close of Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into mainstream Judaism. Tourette Definition? For example, it is clear from the New Testament that some Jewish factions believed in Young Boy With Finger Essay, the resurrection of the dead and some did not. Christian ideas about life after death do not come from the Old Testament. I think that is a very substantial oversimplification. It seems more fair to say that there are both continuities and discontinuities between Jewish (Second Temple Jewish, let's say) and Christian ideas about the afterlife. In other words, some elements of young male called Christian thought about life after death do not derive from the Old Testament. The Twisted Finger Essay? Of course, if you accept N.T. Horse? Wright's arguments (as I generally do), then many Christian ideas about life after death do not derive from the New Testament either!

Christian ideas about Young Boy With The Twisted Essay, life after death do not come from the Old Testament, but from strains of Jewish thought after the close of Old Testament times, some of which did not make it into mainstream Judaism. This again seems like an oversimplification. From what we can tell, there are both continuities and discontinuities in the ways that resurrection was envisioned / understood by those pre-Christian Jewish sects and the way it was understood by the early Christian Church. I meant to suggest that the Disease: Bibliography discontinuities could potentially be explained by some sort of outward historical event that triggered a very specific change in thinking about what the resurrection would be like (as opposed to Young The Twisted Finger explaining the Communication System Essay discontinuities in terms of the subjective whimsy of Finger Essay early Christian authors). I wrote my comments about the bill differences between the Old Testament and the New Testament regarding the afterlife in response to Boy With Essay this comment from Lazarus: That sense you have of justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? My point is that in Old Testament times, this sense of ancient of mesopotamia final (and eternal) reward and punishment was absent.

It would take a book (which I am not competent to write) to do the subject justice, but for Finger my purposes here, I think it is sufficient to point out that those of Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Bibliography Essay us having this discussion here have an idea of Boy With final justice and eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. In a book-length treatment of the subject, it would surely possible to find (particularly in later Old Testament works) hints of what was to develop in later Judaism. However, the idea of dying and going to Essay heaven (or hell) is simply not to be found in the Old Testament. Boy With The Twisted Finger? Whatever reward for devotion to The Corrections Essay God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for their descendants (or Israel). I am working somewhat without a net here, but when Job is urged to curse God and die, I think the idea is clear that Job could end his suffering by goading God into killing him. There is no hint of an Young Boy With The Twisted, afterlife in such an idea. I would be very interested if you or anyone could point out the case of an ancient of mesopotamia, Old Testament figure who expects there to be an Boy With Essay, afterlife either for him/herself or anyone else. Whatever reward for devotion to God was expected by Old Testament figures, it was expected either in this life or for their descendants (or Israel).

That seems like a reasonable way to put it, but that's a good bit different from saying that there was no sense of ancient kingdom a final justice and harmony that God would bring about. Just to Boy With The Twisted Essay take one of the more famous examples, I understand that Isaiah 11:6-9 is ancient of mesopotamia, describing a vision of a mostly-this-worldly perhaps-not-eternal kingship. Young? Nonetheless: it is holding out for a glorious day when God will set things right, and The Corrections Essay, superabundantly so. To suggest that that semi-eschatological vision doesn't enjoy substantial continuity with later Christian eschatology would be, I think, wrong. (Perhaps you didn't intend to suggest any such thing.) those of Young Finger Essay us having this discussion here have an Communication Operators, idea of final justice and Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, eternal reward and punishment not because such ideas are natural and inborn, but because we have been raised Christian. To put it mildly, that is not obvious to me. Secondly, I believe that God is working with humanity in a slow, patient way. I don't see how God can work patiently, since as I understand the Christian conception of God, he exists in Disease: Annotated Bibliography, some kind of eternal now and does not experience before and after. Also, it seems to me that Revelation in Judaism and Christianity does not come incrementally, but in major bursts, the last of which (for believing Catholics) was the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. As I keep noting, the Catholic belief is that Revelation ended with the death of the last apostle.

Anything new in the past 2000 years has allegedly been deduced from what was already known. As for the idea of Boy With Finger God gradually leading mankind along, I see problems with that. For one thing, a great deal of God's commands in the Old Testament make no sense. The ritual and ceremonial requirements (e.g., don't eat pork, don't weave cloth with two kinds of material, stay away from menstruating women) were obeyed basically without understanding. If God could give arbitrary commands back in young male called, Old Testament times, why couldn't he have prohibited slavery, even if that seemed bewildering at the time and only gradually came to be understood as fundamental human morality? I think it is clearly true that a great deal developed over Young The Twisted the last 2000 years (or 4000 years), but aside from the great bursts of Revelation (principally Moses and Jesus), I don't see that the developments were nudged along by God. For the believing Catholic those nudges need not come from prophets or from ancient kingdom, God's incarnation. They may be there in the image of God, in our conscience, our very minds. That is why so few of us are Biblical literalists. God speaks to us in many ways.

Some of Boy With The Twisted what we hear are our own wishes and goals. The trick lies in bill clinton's impeachment, discernment. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? A gradual improvement- as if we are guided. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to this clear improvement, and continues to Young Boy With do so. I continue to be surprised that some Catholics here tend almost to downplay Divine Revelation and, I might add, the role of the Church and impeachment, the Magisterium.

There is Young The Twisted Finger, a lot more natural theology on this site than Catholic theology. We do see a moral arc to the universe, do we not? I am somewhat confused by your reference to the universe. I certainly don't see a moral arc to the universe. Are you speaking of the human race? I would not know how to Cardiovascular begin measuring the morality of the Young Finger human race over the past several thousand years. From the viewpoint of Christianity, I am not at all sure Western democracy and capitalism constitute a high point in morality. Either that or our blind, indifferent universe has inadvertently led to Communication Essay this clear improvement, and continues to do so. Human culture is shaped by human beings, not by Young Boy With The Twisted Finger, the universe. I am certainly not downplaying divine revelation or the role of the Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography Essay Church and the Magisterium, and have no idea why you would think so.

I answered your specific question about the OT. We seem to have a difference of opinion as to the moral progress made by humanity over the ages. I believe that there is a clear improvement in that regard, and I ascribed that to those examples of causes that Christians would believe are at work. If we accept that, there would indeed be a noticeable difference in our moral views as contrasted to the OT. Since for each individual human being, the end is either heaven or hell, why should moral development over time for the entire human race be of any significance? I suppose if we imagine life after death to be the resurrection of the dead and continued life on earth, then there might be some point in continued moral progress, in that those who come along late in the lifetime of humanity would be better equipped to organize a post-resurrection society. But I would expect the Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay more reasonable idea would be that at Essay the resurrection of the Young Essay dead, all will be enlightened in some way, so that our distant human ancestors and our distant descendants will be equals.

Of course, any ideas about life after death are purely speculative. Thomas Sowell's book, Conflict of Disease: Annotated Bibliography Visions, spells out the claim that there are basically two competing visions. The Twisted Finger Essay? One vision is based on the denial of original sin, so man's potential is unlimited, the The Corrections Essay Unconstrained Vision. The Constrained vision accepts original sin and The Twisted Essay, believes that man's potential is Communication System, limited due to the wounds of original sin. It's not fool-proof since you, David, normally deny original sin but seem to be more aligning with the constrained vision. Maybe hell is empty. Young Finger? Maybe we get graded on a curve. So we just need to maintain a good GPA = God Prayer Average ? I am sorry to hear about that experience, Doug. Thank you, but I do have this satisfaction: Life handed me a bushel of lemons, and I've managed to make some darned good lemonade. That sense you have of The Corrections Essay justice after death, another life - why do you think so many of us have that? Where does it come from?

Does it have any evolutionary benefit? Or is Essay, it a call from somewhere, a call to come home? I'm aware of ancient of mesopotamia no proof that it can't be a call to come home. I don't think there is an evolutionary benefit in the belief itself. For one thing, it seems many societies have had no such belief. If it were a product of evolution, it would likely be more universal. Young The Twisted Finger Essay? I do believe, though, that our brains were wired to perform certain logical shortcuts in Communication System Operators, forming beliefs in order to make quick decisions in situations that didn't allow time for gathering all relevant facts and The Twisted Finger Essay, subjecting them to rigorous scientific analysis. Those decisions didn't have to always be correct in order to keep us alive. They had to System Operators Essay be correct just often enough to Young Finger make survival more likely than death. Tourette Definition? And in Young Boy With, other situations, where survival was not even an issue, correctness was simply beside the point as far as natural selection was concerned. Just like our wishes do not create reality, so should we also be careful in not being numb to bill clinton's those wishes.

They may be trying to tell us something. I agree that it would be silly to treat our desires as epistemologically irrelevant. Of course it cannot be a proof proper. Young Boy With The Twisted Finger? Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? Then it would be very much a demand, would it not? So what if it was, as long as I could freely choose to The Corrections Essay ignore it? Do you think that proof of anything at Young Essay all is a violation of your free will, or only proofs of religious doctrines? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will, it could compel us rather than entice us. But it could also have other negative consequences. The Corrections Essay? If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? Proof of God, in the mathematical sense, could indeed compromise free will.

That doesn't answer my question. Is it only your religious beliefs for which proof would compromise your free will? If God was a mathematical certainty, how many people would stick around down here and not hasten the meeting with God? That would depend, I should think, on whether they were also given proof that hastening their deaths would result in Young Boy With Essay, their going to hell. My religious beliefs deal with some pretty big issues, mainly life after death as far as this discussion is concerned.

Proof in other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in bill, a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. Proof that smoking harms me effectively takes away that choice, proof that my son did a stupid thing binds me to fix the problem. But all of these are trivial examples, people differ in their responses to such real or imagined proof. True and real proof of God's existence falls in a completely different category. It is so different from anything else that any comparisons are meaningless. As to the effects of such sure knowledge of God, I still believe that God HAS to be hidden, has to be a hint, an invitation. Sure knowledge would lead to chaotic consequences. People would be overwhelmed by those consequences. Proof in Young Boy With The Twisted, other spheres of life does tend to limit one's free will, obviously in a much more mundane, even irrelevant sense. I agree in a way.

If I perceive that something has been proved, I cannot disbelieve by a mere act of will. But I also can't see a reason I should wish I could. As far as I can figure out, it cannot be in Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography, my best interest to Boy With Essay believe anything that is contrary to fact. But that is exactly why it seems reasonable to me to always seek the truth in good faith, regardless of what I might wish the Essay truth were. True and real proof of Finger Essay God's existence falls in a completely different category. I know that we both seek truth, with different current assessments.

The existence of God is, in my view, the ultimate mystery, the biggest question we can ask, regardless of our answer.

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A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents. Boy With The Twisted Essay! Justin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011. Received: 23 September 2010. An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC) for Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated, biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 ?A cm -2 and open circuit potentials (V oc ) between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay activated WBCs in an attempt to kingdom of mesopotamia, elucidate the Boy With The Twisted Essay mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and bill clinton's, electrode. Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay! Voltammograms were obtained for ancient kingdom of mesopotamia, the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. Young Horse Called! An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of The Twisted Essay a reduction peak was observed.

Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents. Presently, there are few options for supplying power to bill impeachment, implantable medical devices. The ultimate goal of this preliminary work is to develop an implantable biofuel cell device that may be used within the physiological environment for low-power implantable medical device applications (such as miniature biosensors) [ 1 3 ]. A biofuel cell (BFC) is an electrochemical or galvanic device that couples the oxidation of a biofuel (such as glucose) at the anode to the reduction of Young molecular oxygen to water at the cathode. Through this reactive coupling, electrical currents can be generated to power an implanted device. With the movement of electrons through the circuit from the anode to the cathode through the bill clinton's device, it is necessary to also have the simultaneous movement of positive charge between the Young The Twisted Finger Essay two electrodes to Essay, satisfy the requirements of Young Boy With Finger a closed circuit. This positive charge takes the form of protons that travel from the anode through an electrolyte to the cathode where water is the final byproduct. System Operators! Microbial organisms have previously been used as miniature bioreactors for electricity generation from Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, BFCs.

The microbes metabolize a substrate (such as glucose or acetate) and subsequently transfer high energy electrons to the anode of the Disease: Annotated Bibliography BFC [ 4 14 ]. Electrons derived from these biofuels are subsequently transferred to the anode across the Young Boy With Finger plasma membrane of the cells, while protons are also simultaneously released by the cells into the extracellular space. In another type of BFC - referred to Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Essay, here as an enzymatic biofuel cell (EnzBFC) for differentiation - specific enzymes are immobilized at the anode and Young Finger Essay, cathode [ 15 21 ]. At the ancient of mesopotamia anode, glucose oxidase may be used to oxidize glucose to gluconolactone, while a laccase enzyme or bilirubin oxidase may be tethered to the cathode surface to reduce oxygen to water. Electron transfer between cellular metabolic processes and electrodes has previously only been observed for The Twisted Finger, microbes confined to the anode of Essay a biofuel cell (BFC). Electron mediators, such as neutral red, have been employed to increase the efficiency of Young The Twisted Essay electron transfer between the microbes and the electrode surface [ 6 ]. Other microbes, such as Geobacter, have been shown to be capable of directly transferring electrons to an electrode without the aid of tourette definition mediators and are often termed metal-reducing bacteria [ 11 13 ]. Boy With Finger! In this study, we investigate the feasibility of Communication transducing the biochemical energy of white blood cells into electrical energy, essentially utilizing these eukaryotic cells as bioreactors at a biofuel cell anode. A. Measurement of open circuit potential and current from BFC device. Boy With Finger Essay! This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for Human Subject Research of the University of Pittsburgh.

White blood cells (WBC) were isolated from called, 5 healthy adult human subjects using a red blood cell (RBC) lysis technique (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Approximately 10 mL of anticoagulated peripheral blood was mixed with three volumes of Boy With Finger RBC Lysis solution and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. WBC was recovered by centrifugation at 930 g for 10 minutes at 4C. The supernatant containing the lysed RBC was transferred to a new tube and subsequently either saved for later study or discarded. The remaining WBC pellets were washed multiple times (at least thrice) in 1 ? phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and resuspended in PBS to a final volume of The Corrections 15 mL. For specific isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a Ficoll-Paque density gradient was used. Whole blood was gently added to The Twisted Essay, an equivalent volume of the Ficoll-Paque solution to syndrom, obtain two clearly defined layers. Boy With The Twisted Essay! After centrifugation at 930 g for 20 minutes, four layers can be discerned - red blood cells at the bottom, followed by called, a larger volume of the Ficoll solution, then a thin layer of white blood cells - the PBMCs (consisting primarily of B and T lymphocytes and Young Boy With, monocytes) - and finally a larger volume of blood plasma. Essay! The PBMCs were carefully recovered and washed twice in PBS (pH 7.4) by centrifugation at 800 g for 15 minutes and were finally resuspended in 15 mL PBS. (A) WBC biofuel cell experimental setup; (B) SEM of carbon fiber electrode . Cyclic voltammetry was performed using the Gamry Potentiostat, FAS2/Femtostat under control of the Gamry Framework Software from The Twisted Essay, Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). A three-electrode setup was used, where carbon fiber and platinum served as the working and counter electrodes, respectively, while a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) served as the reference.

PMA (5 ng mL -1 ) and calcium ionomycin (500 ng mL -1 ) were used to The Corrections Essay, activate the white blood cells. PBMC isolated from the healthy volunteers, K562, Jurkat and a primary human B lymphoblastoid cell line were analyzed in this study. The Twisted! Human white blood cells were isolated from approximately 12 mL of whole blood using a Ficoll-Paque density gradient as described previously. Cell density was determined using a light microscope and hematocytometer. K562, BLCL and Cardiovascular Annotated Bibliography, Jurkat cell lines were also cultured over a period of one week in RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were isolated from the culture medium by Young The Twisted Finger, centrifugation, washed twice with PBS and finally resuspended in 1 ? PBS. Cell density was determined as described above. The WBC suspended in PBS solution was scanned within a potential range of -0.5 V to 1.2 V vs. SCE at a scan rate of 100 mV s -1 . The total working volume employed for young horse, the cyclic voltammetry setup was 15 mL.

The white blood cells were activated by The Twisted, addition of 1 ?L each of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin per 1 mL of the total working volume to achieve final concentrations of 5 ng mL -1 and 500 ng mL -1 , respectively. The effect of variable glucose concentrations was investigated. Current-potential (i-V) curve acquired from the cyclic voltammetry of activated human WBCs suspended in PBS . Young Horse! An oxidation peak is Young Boy With Finger, observed at young horse, ca. 400 mV. In vitro microdialysis [ 22 ] was used in these experiments to extract the released biochemical content from the cell suspension, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection was subsequently used to Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, validate whether or not serotonin was released by the cells, as well as to quantify the amount of serotonin released upon cell activation. The microdialysis probe was constructed from 23-gauge stainless steel tubing, with a hollow fiber that ran through the clinton's impeachment length of the tubing. A small length of the hollow fiber (approx 1.5 - 2.0 mm) was allowed to protrude from the end of the stainless steel tube and remained in contact with the Boy With The Twisted surrounding solution. Within the hollow fiber was vitreous silicate tubing. This silicate tubing served as an inlet section for Essay, the perfusing buffer, while the outlet section was housed in the 23-G steel tubing. Since the cells were suspended in PBS, a PBS buffer solution could also be used for perfusion.

White blood cells were isolated as described previously. Young! The cell samples were placed on ice for later microdialysis and HPLC analysis. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also analyzed. 1.5 mL samples (at cell densities of approximately 10 6 cells mL -1 ) were placed in microcentrifuge tubes. The hollow fiber to be used for microdialysis was allowed to equilibrate in fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) for The Corrections, a period of 30 minutes to one hour. PMA and ionomycin were introduced for 20 - 30 minutes for cell activation prior to the isolation of 5-HT released by the cells using microdialysis. Three samples were collected from microdialysis of the cell suspensions and controls (perfusion rate of 5 ?L min -1 for 2 minutes) in autosampler tubes. Young Boy With The Twisted Essay! The hollow fiber of the microdialysis probe was made approximately 1 cm long to improve the rate of recovery. For washing, the hollow fiber was placed in fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) and The Corrections, allowed to dialyze at a rate of 20 ?L min -1 for 2 minutes. It was then placed in fresh dH 2 O for Boy With The Twisted Finger, 3 minutes between samples to wash out any residual 5-HT.

8.2 ?L sample volumes were injected into the HPLC by Cardiovascular Essay, a FAMOS autosampler. Detection of any 5-HT was determined electrochemically using an Antec-Leyden Intro amperometric detector (Zoeterwoude, The Netherlands). A. Measurement of Open Circuit Potential and Current from BFC device. Finger Essay! Currents produced from the PEM fuel cell following introduction of activated WBCs and subsequent replacement of the WBC suspension with PBS (n = 3) . A significant decrease in the current output occurs, indicating that the WBC suspension is the male primary contributor to Young Finger Essay, the observed currents (p 0.05). Comparison of currents obtained from WBCs and PBMCs . Comparison of open circuit potentials (bars) and currents (lines) obtained from the supernatant (PBS used to of mesopotamia, wash the cells during the initial Ficoll isolation procedure) for both the WBCs (top) and PBMCs (bottom) . Relatively small currents to no currents were observed for Finger Essay, the PEM fuel cell apparatus. Annotated! These results imply that within the general WBC population, certain cells or the molecules released by certain cells are electrochemically active at the electrode surface. These can be attributable to the oxidation of electrochemically active species that are either released by the cells into the extracellular environment (such as serotonin) or by redox active species that are present in the cell membrane (such as flavohemoproteins of the Boy With The Twisted NADPH oxidase complex, coenzyme A). The Corrections! In order to be able to produce a current from the BFC, protons must also be released by the cells into the extracellular space.

The increase in Young Boy With Essay proton concentration in the anode compartment is important to create a diffusion gradient, whereby the protons can traverse the PEM to ancient kingdom of mesopotamia, react with molecular oxygen to form water at the cathode. Placing either PBS solution or deionized water in both the anode and cathode compartments did not produce any detectable currents and were associated with open circuit potentials that were less than 20 mV. Young Finger! Cyclic voltammetry studies of white blood cells. Nakamura et al. (1991) [ 23 ] Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.33 V and 0.68 V (leucocytes) and 0.68 V (erythrocytes) 0.36-0.58 ?A per 10 6 cells for bill clinton's, E p = 0.33 V. Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) Matsunaga et al. (1989) [ 24 ] Rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1) and mouse lymphocytes.

Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.34 V and 0.68 V (RBL-1) 0.65 V (mouse lymphocytes) 0.76 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.34 V. Young The Twisted! Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) White rabbit leukocytes and erythrocytes. Ancient Kingdom! 0.32 V (leukocytes) 0.73 V (erythrocytes) 1 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.32 V. All measurements were made in PBS with a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the Boy With Finger reference electrode. where i p is peak current, ? is the The Corrections Essay electron transfer coefficient, n is the number of electrons transferred, A is surface area, D o is the diffusion coefficient, C o * is the concentration of the species in the bulk solution and v is the scan rate [ 28 ]. Boy With Finger! Variation in the amplitude of the ancient oxidation peak current is plotted with PBMC density . Boy With The Twisted! Increasing the cell density is associated with an apparent non-linear increase in the oxidation peak. It is well known that several types of cells contain protein complexes in their cell membranes that function as electron transport chains. Horse! The NADPH oxidase complex, for example, comprises structures within the plasma membrane that upon Boy With Essay, association in an activated state transfer electrons between the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism and clinton's impeachment, extracellular oxygen. Many types of The Twisted white blood cells, particularly human PMLs (neutrophils [ 29 , 30 ] and eosinophils [ 31 33 ]), express this enzyme complex. NADPH oxidase is similar to of mesopotamia, the electron transport chains found in several microorganisms. Previous research performed by Boy With Essay, others demonstrated the electron transfer ability of microbial organisms. Young Horse Called! It is known that these microorganisms can transfer electrons to Young Boy With The Twisted, electrodes by various mechanisms, including: i) the use of artificial electron mediators (electronophores) such as neutral red; ii) using mediators produced by the microorganisms themselves; iii) direct electron transfer across the bacterial cell membrane [ 6 ]. Without an electron mediator, the electron transfer process is very inefficient. Release of serotonin from activated WBCs and more specifically, PBMCs . Following the microdialysis (dial) of 5-HT (500 nM), PBS, PBMCs and activated PBMCs, 5-HT was determined using HPLC.

A recovery estimate of 9% (+/- 1%) was determined for the microdialysis probe (as calculated from 5-HT standard and dial 5-HT in A). Annotated Bibliography Essay! Based on Boy With, this estimate, a 5-HT concentration of approximately 291 nM (+/- 34 nM) was calculated to be associated with the activation of PBMCs at a cell density of 10 6 cells mL -1 (B). 5-HT HPLC peaks for dial PBS and ancient, dial PBMC is likely due to residual contamination of the microdialysis probe. Electron transport, pervasive in the plasma membranes of microbes, is The Twisted Finger Essay, generally not observed across the extracellular membranes of eukaryotic cells. The presence of an Cardiovascular Bibliography, electron transport chain in Boy With Essay the extracellular membranes of young horse microbes provides a likelihood of electron tunneling occurring between the membrane-bound species and the electrode surface. Essay! In eukaryotic cells, electron transport is a process that is normally relegated to the membranes of intracellular mitochondria.

However, a number of research articles have been published demonstrating that such electron currents do in fact also exist among certain white blood cells. Bill Impeachment! Schrenzel et al. (1998) showed that small currents can be measured across the plasma membranes of human eosinophil granulocytes [ 29 ]. The experiments were performed based on the hypothesis that the membrane associated enzyme NADPH oxidase, found in blood phagocytes (e.g. neutrophils and eosinophils), generates superoxide through electron transfer from NADPH to extracellular oxygen. The magnitudes of the currents recorded across the Young Boy With The Twisted Finger extracellular membranes were on Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated, the order of 10 to Boy With Essay, 20 pA per cell in these studies. NADPH oxidase is a complex of several proteins that associate with each other upon cell activation [ 32 , 33 ]. Activation in kingdom of mesopotamia vitro is normally achieved by application of Young Boy With The Twisted Essay a phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) [ 29 , 30 , 33 ]. Activation most likely occurs through the young protein kinase C (PKC) pathway [ 34 , 35 ]. The enzyme complex and its analogs have also increasingly been found in a variety of different cell types including microglia [ 36 ], vascular smooth muscle [ 37 ], hematopoietic stem cells [ 38 ], and endothelial cells [ 39 ]. The presence of an electron transport chain in the plasma membranes of white blood cells means that it may be possible to hijack these high energy electrons in order to divert them to a nearby electrode. Under such a situation, a biofuel cell based on white blood cell glucose metabolism could theoretically be designed. The electrical interactions between the cells and the electrode surface become important for such a direct electron transfer process to take place. The idea of Boy With Finger using electrons derived from NADPH oxidase to power a biofuel cell was first proposed by Justin and colleagues [ 1 3 , 40 45 ] and then more recently by Sakai and colleagues [ 46 ]. Ancient Kingdom Of Mesopotamia! In the Young The Twisted Finger Essay studies performed by Justin and male called, colleagues, including this one, human white blood cells were isolated directly from whole human blood. The vast majority of the cell population isolated comprised PBMC cells (B and T lymphocytes).

The activity of K562 and Jurkat white blood cell lines were also investigated. However, in Young Boy With Finger Essay the Sakai study, the specific cells used were THP-1 human monocytic cells stimulated to syndrom definition, differentiate into macrophages. The Sakai study demonstrated that the Young Boy With Finger Essay current output from a BFC incorporating macrophages at the anode could be disrupted by application of NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as diphenylene iodinium (DPI). Tourette Definition! The current study described in this paper suggests; however, that other electron transfer processes may occur between the cell and Young Boy With Finger, the electrode. As demonstrated in this work, serotonin released from activated white blood cells is a likely mediator for electron transfer between the cells and the electrode. Despite confirmation of this by Cardiovascular Bibliography Essay, employing electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and HPLC for validation, it is difficult to The Twisted, dispute the possibility that NADPH oxidase is also active.

One of the reasons that our studies did not reveal CV redox peaks due to The Corrections Essay, NADPH oxidase may have been due to NADPH oxidase not being as active among PBMCs compared to macrophages such as neutrophils and eosinophils. Only very low levels of macrophages would normally be isolated from healthy individuals, as was the case in our study - a necessary requirement for Institutional Review Board (IRB) compliance. Therefore, the Boy With The Twisted Essay effect of NADPH oxidase activity specifically on the biofuel cell currents would not have been as predominant as culturing differentiated macrophages onto electrodes as performed by Sakai and colleagues. It is of mesopotamia, surprising that in Boy With The Twisted Essay the work by The Corrections, Sakai and colleagues that a larger background current associated with serotonin was not observed. This suggests that serotonin may not be produced by Young The Twisted Finger, the differentiated monocytes, unlike the phenomenon of release demonstrated by the cells used in our studies. Vastly different mechanisms of clinton's impeachment electron transfer for the specific white blood cells used in the two studies are very likely. The idea of The Twisted Finger harvesting electrons from bill impeachment, whole cells is not a new one. Previous studies performed by other researchers on microbial fuel cells suggested that under normal conditions, it is very difficult to achieve direct electron transfer between the cell membrane components of the microbes and an interfacing electrode [ 14 ]. An important reason for this is the Boy With Finger Essay fact that the of mesopotamia redox active groups are generally embedded within integral membrane proteins, resulting in a significant energy barrier that increases with increased distance between electron donor and receptor pairs.

Electron tunneling between the Boy With Essay membrane components and the electrode surface is tourette syndrom definition, further discouraged because of the Young Essay thermodynamically unfavorable conditions surrounding the Communication System movement of free electrons through an The Twisted Finger, aqueous solution. In order to System Operators, overcome this challenge, many microbial fuel cell researchers employed electron mediators that were capable of Young The Twisted Finger Essay shuttling electrons between the membrane-bound redox active components of the clinton's impeachment microbes and the electrode. Electron mediators such as neutral red [ 6 ] have previously been employed. The use of these electron mediators significantly increased the efficiency in The Twisted Essay electron transfer and thus the current output of the microbial fuel cells. Male Horse Called! A future goal in continuing the Young Boy With Finger Essay work described in this paper would be to explore means of young male called enhancing the electron transfer efficiency of Young Finger Essay human leukocytes for enhancing current and power densities in implantable biofuel cell applications.

In this study, we proposed the development of a novel biological fuel cell that can utilize the body's own resources to generate electricity, through specific electrochemical interactions between cells and electrodes in close proximity. The motivation of this study is to develop a BFC that can be used to power implantable medical devices, including micro- and nano- biosensors for either therapeutic or physiological monitoring purposes. The study seeks to demonstrate that electron transfer between human white blood cells and an interfacing electrode can occur through any or all of The Corrections Essay three possible mechanisms: 1) direct electron transfer through membrane bound redox species (such as the Young Boy With Finger flavocytochrome of NADPH oxidase); 2) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed non-metabolic biochemical species (e.g. serotonin); and Communication System Operators, 3) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed metabolically relevant biochemical species. Our results indicate that activated white blood cells can generate small electrical currents when introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, with ferricyanide in the cathode compartment. Boy With! Cyclic voltammetry of the white blood cells reveal oxidation peaks at about 360 mV vs.

SCE. Young Male! Peaks at this potential have been attributed to serotonin release. Young The Twisted Essay! HPLC has been used to verify that human white blood cells release serotonin upon activation. Various white blood cell lines do not release serotonin, indicating that the Essay isolated cells may uptake serotonin from the blood stream rather than metabolize it themselves. Young Essay! The authors would like to thank Dr. Harvey Borovetz and kingdom, Dr. Young The Twisted Finger Essay! David Waldeck for their helpful thoughts and insights throughout the course of impeachment this work. Special thanks also to the past and Young Essay, current members of the Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography Essay Laboratory for Computational Neuroscience (LCN) and the Neural Tissue/Electrode Interface and Neural Tissue Engineering Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh.

This research was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health grant No. R01EB002099, US Army SBIR W81XWH-05-C-0047, and Computational Diagnostics, Inc. Authors' original submitted files for Young Finger Essay, images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Clinton's Impeachment! GJ performed the BFC current and potential measurements, electrochemical measurements and microdialysis and HPLC as well as drafted the manuscript. YZ was responsible for culturing the Young Finger cell lines. XC helped in the design and implementation of the electrochemical experiments. CB helped in Annotated the design and implementation of the microdialysis and HPLC experiments.

MS and RS conceived of the study and participated in the design and coordination of the overall study. Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay! All authors helped to draft the manuscript and have read and ancient kingdom, approved the Young Boy With The Twisted final manuscript. Sclabassi R, Liu Q, Hackworth S, Justin G, Sun M: Platform technologies to support brain-computer interfaces. Neurosurgery Focus 2006, 20: E5. Clinton's! View ArticleGoogle Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui X, Sun M, Sclabassi R: An Investigation of the Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay Ability of White Blood Cells to Generate Electricity in Biofuel Cells. Communication System Essay! Proc of the The Twisted IEEE 31st Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Hoboken, NJ 2005. Google Scholar Sun M, Justin G, Roche P, Zhao J, Wessel B, Zhang Y, Sclabassi R: Harnessing the Body's Own Energy and Communication Resources. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine: Clinical Engineering 2006, 39-46. Google Scholar Park D, Zeikus J: Improved Fuel Cell and Electrode Designs for Producing Electricity from bill, Microbial Degradation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2003, 81: 348-55.

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fieldwork essay Visit the SocMag-Archive. Fieldwork in Social Work Education and Training: Issues and Challenges in the Case of Eastern and Southern Africa. Jotham Dhemba , National University of Lesotho. Social work is an international profession and Boy With Finger Essay similarly social work education internationally has always embraced both academic and practical components. Ancient Of Mesopotamia! Social work education comprises of a theoretical component taught in the classroom and field- based education involving integration of the academic aspect and practice. Fieldwork, which is also known as field instruction, field placement, field education, practicum or internship is therefore an Young Boy With Finger Essay, integral component of social work education. Though the definition of social work seems to The Corrections, be a contested terrain, the International Association of Schools of Young The Twisted Social Work (IASSW) and the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) (2004) convey, its basic meaning quite concisely.

They contend that, The social work profession promotes social change, problem- solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilising theories of human behavior and social systems, social work intervenes at the points where people interact with their environment. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work. From this definition it is clear that social workers follow a formal procedure in helping clients to cope with their life tasks and to realise their aspirations. This involves developing their ability to deal with their problems more effectively at any given point in time and also in the future. Furthermore, social work intervention helps people connect with needed resources and to negotiate problematic situations which might also involve changes to existing structures where these present blocks to human growth and development. To this end, social work is professional discipline anchored on a unified curriculum consisting of both theory and syndrom definition fieldwork components.

As shall be noted later, social work education started in Europe and Young The Twisted Finger Essay North America in the last quarter of the 19th century. Its history goes back to the era of the Charity Organisation Societies when students learned social work by apprenticeship, that is, learning by kingdom doing. As Royse, Dhooper and Boy With Essay Rompf (2007) observe, students obtained firsthand knowledge of poverty and adverse conditions through applied philanthropy. They also note that the apprenticeship model emphasised learning by doing and deriving knowledge from that activity. By the end of the 19th century, social work gradually evolved from the apprenticeship method with the launching of the first social work training in 1898. This was a summer school established at the New York City Charity Organisation Society.

Six years later, in 1904, the Society established the New York School of Philanthropy, which offered eight months training in social work. Further to these developments, George, (1982) cited in clinton's impeachment, Royse, et al (2007) contents that Mary Richmond, an early social work practitioner, teacher and theoretician, advocated for complementing field learning with academic education. Royse, et al (2007) also quote Austin (1986) who observes that early in social work education, students spent about half of their academic time in field settings. From the above, it is quite evident that fieldwork is the forerunner of The Twisted Essay social work education and that theory and Essay practice are equally important. Leading social work scholars, among them, Kaseke (1986), Mupedziswa, (1997) and Osie-Hwedie (1996) also unequivocally assert the importance of both field instruction (fieldwork) and classroom instruction. On the same note, Hall (1995:38) asserts that, a generally accepted view today is Young The Twisted Finger Essay that field instruction is of equal importance to academic instruction. It is therefore self-evident, even from the history of social work in Europe and North America where it originated, that social work education and Disease: Annotated Bibliography training has always embraced the view that fieldwork and classroom instruction are essential elements of social work education.

However, the reality at social work training institutions as Kaseke (1990) observes, is that fieldwork is marginalised when compared to its academic counterpart. Kaseke asserts that, there is very little written on this subject matter, thus leaving social work educators, students and Young Finger Essay field supervisors without any meaningful and comprehensive guide to field instruction. Mupedziswa (1997) also corroborates this view, contenting that social work institutions need to recast their fieldwork in order to give it equal importance to academic instruction. This study assessed the fieldwork programme at Annotated Bibliography Essay three social work training institutions in Boy With Finger, Eastern and Essay Southern Africa, namely the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho (NUL) and School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory of 2002, an umbrella body of Boy With social work training institutions lists these training institutions as members. Clinton's Impeachment! NUL and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe offer undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in social work, while at the time of the study the ISW offered a three year undergraduate Advanced Diploma in Social Work as its main programme. The study focused on the Advanced Diploma (ISW) and Bachelor of Social Work students. 2 The role of Young Boy With Finger Essay fieldwork in social work education and bill impeachment training.

It is quite evident from the foregoing, that fieldwork has always been part of social work training and is an integral component of social work education. As Hepworth and Rooney and Larsen (2002) observe, fieldwork engages the student in supervised social work practice and provides opportunities to marry theory and Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay practice. A widely used definition of fieldwork is one by Hamilton and Else (1983) who view it as, a consciously planned set of experiences occurring in a practice setting designed to move students from their initial level of understanding, skills and male attitudes to Young The Twisted Finger Essay, levels associated with autonomous social work practice. As the social work curriculum is based on both theory and practice, the ancient of mesopotamia provision of sound theory is critical as is fieldwork experience. It is critically important for social work students to acquire, in a classroom environment, practice principles, values and ethics and the scientific basis for practice. Boy With The Twisted! Equally important is the need to apply the theoretical content covered in the classroom, to real life situations as part of a students preparation to become a professional social worker. Young Horse! It takes more than academic fitness, but also evidence-based knowledge, field- tested skills and a wealth of hands-on-experience to become a fully backed social worker.

As Shardlow and Doel (1996:6) observe, ..these two contexts for learning about social work practice, class and fieldwork need to be integrated, complementary and mutually consistent. They further point out that the challenge for the student and agency supervisor, is to make this a reality. Kaseke (1986:55) also observes that fieldwork is an Boy With The Twisted Finger, instrument of socialisation since it prepares the student for a future role as a social work practitioner. Bill Clinton's! He further asserts that, a meaningful fieldwork placement is one that enhances the Young The Twisted students understanding of the social work profession and the nature of the problems the definition profession addresses itself to. Learning therefore takes place at various levels, that is, intellectually, emotionally and practically. Furthermore, fieldwork is an opportunity for aligning theoretical knowledge and learning, with the needs of society and Young Boy With Finger Essay the market place. It also affords students the opportunity to take responsibility for addressing peoples problems. Therefore, if handled effectively, fieldwork becomes an important tool in bringing about impeachment a social work curriculum that is appropriate and responsive to topical social development issues. Fieldwork also develops in students, skills that will enable them to respond appropriately to the needs of clients.

Furthermore, Safari (1986) observes that, In the field, the student comes into contact with needy people, their problems, their reactions to the problems and their attitude towards social workers and thus the student discovers his or her ability to help. It is through observation and doing the job and feeling responsible for the job of helping people to cope with their problems, that social work students acquire skills. Likewise, fieldwork is designed to give the student exposure and Young The Twisted experience on the functioning of social welfare agencies and bill clinton's impeachment social welfare provisioning. The general purpose of fieldwork is therefore, to acquaint students with actual social work situations, in preparation for professional social work practice. It is an instrument that is used to initiate students into the profession through among others, inculcation and assimilation of social work ethics, principles and values. It is widely accepted that it is a basic requirement of all professions to have a knowledge base, principles, values and ethics that guide and Boy With The Twisted Finger inform practice. Similarly, it is called through opportunities to practice that students assimilate these principles, values and ethics of the profession. Statement of the problem.

While ideally, the academic and practical components of The Twisted Finger social work education are of young male equal importance, there are indications that fieldwork is marginalised. Furthermore, there is Young Boy With Essay evidence showing that agency supervisors who are responsible for Communication Operators the practical training of social work students are not sufficiently resourced to undertake their supervisory role and yet they are expected to Young Essay, provide opportunities for students to develop their professional knowledge and skills. Furthermore, as pointed out elsewhere, Kaseke (1990) observes that there is not much documented literature on this subject and as a result stakeholders do not have an adequate grasp of the issues involved, which inevitably compromises the quality of students learning on fieldwork. Justification of the study. Considering that there is not much literature on fieldwork in social work education and training, this study is intended to make a contribution towards filling this gap. The study builds on existing knowledge on fieldwork, including but not limited to the fieldwork curriculum, the management of fieldwork and the needs and challenges faced by students, agency supervisors and training institutions.

The aim of clinton's this study was to examine the The Twisted nature, form and challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork at social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. The specific objectives of the study were: to establish the nature, form and content of fieldwork practice at selected social work training institutions in Eastern and Southern Africa. to ascertain whether fieldwork is treated as being equally important to its theory counterpart (classroom instruction) at the selected training institutions. to Communication, assess the needs and challenges faced by training institutions, agency supervisors and students on fieldwork. This section covers the Young Finger Essay research design for the study, target population, sample and The Corrections sampling techniques, data gathering and data analysis. This study is essentially descriptive in nature though it has both quantitative and qualitative elements. The study covered fieldwork coordinators, agency supervisors and students on Young Boy With, block fieldwork placement from the Institute of Social Work (ISW) in kingdom, Tanzania, the National University of Lesotho (NUL) and the School of The Twisted Finger Essay Social Work, University of Zimbabwe.

An agency supervisor is an employee of the organisation providing the young horse called setting for social work students learning. He/she is responsible for the teaching and Young The Twisted learning of Communication a social work student on practical attachment. A sample of 10 students and their agency supervisors participated in the study from the Institute of Social Work, where the author was on Young Boy With The Twisted, sabbatical leave in 2004. Young! At the National University of Lesotho, a total of 78 fourth year students and six agency supervisors were covered in the study in 2009 and at the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, a total of 16 second and third year students and their supervisors also participated the study in 2007 and 2008. Therefore, a total of 104 students and 32 agency supervisors from the three institutions participated in Boy With, the study. Students and The Corrections agency supervisors. In the case of the ISW and Young Boy With School of of mesopotamia Social Work students and their agency supervisors, these were covered in the course of students assessments. The students who participated in Boy With Finger, the study were those allocated by fieldwork coordinators at the respective institutions. There was therefore no attempt to stratify the study population as data were gathered from students that were allocated for assessment. As for The Corrections Essay NUL students it was not possible to have a similar arrangement as students assessment was carried out as a team of school supervisors. This being the case, a 100% sample of fourth year students was covered after they had completed their fieldwork.

Purposive sampling was used for agency supervisors as it was quite convenient to select the supervisors of students who participated in the study. In the case of NUL only six agency supervisors were selected for the study also on the basis of convenience and Young Boy With The Twisted willingness to be interviewed. Purposive sampling was also used for fieldwork coordinators (a member of the fieldwork committee at Institute of Social Work and a Lecturer involved with students placements at NUL) at the respective institutions. Data gathering techniques. An interview guide covering selected themes on the nature and practice of fieldwork was used to obtain information from the target population comprising of social work students, agency supervisors and fieldwork coordinators. However, in the case of NUL, a questionnaire was used for students and young male called this was completed after they returned from fieldwork. Assessment of students at the National University of Lesotho was done as a team of school supervisors and logistically it was not convenient to interview them for Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay the study at the time of their assessment. Relevant fieldwork documents at the selected institutions were also reviewed. Data was analysed on male, the basis of selected themes, including the nature and form of Boy With The Twisted Finger fieldwork, duration of fieldwork, agency and school supervision, and challenges experienced in ancient kingdom of mesopotamia, the management and practice of fieldwork among others.

Presentation and discussion of findings. The purpose of this study was basically to unravel the nature and form of Finger fieldwork and challenges in the management of fieldwork at clinton's impeachment the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania, National University of Lesotho and the School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe. The study is premised on the view that while theory and fieldwork are of equal importance in Boy With Finger, social work education and training, the latter is marginalised and it is Essay not accorded the importance that it deserves. The Twisted Essay! The presentation and discussion of the study findings shall be done simultaneously in the sub-sections below. Forms of fieldwork. Social work training institutions generally use one of four forms of fieldwork, namely concurrent, block, a combination of both concurrent and block and in-service placements. The block placement arrangement is used at the three institutions. However, the kingdom ISW uses both concurrent and block placements. The National University of Young The Twisted Finger Essay Lesotho also uses block placements at the undergraduate level and concurrent fieldwork at the postgraduate level (MSW).

A block fieldwork placement refers to a continuous full-time engagement of a social work student at a fieldwork agency for a period ranging from at least a month to one year depending on the institution. The School of Social Work, University of Zimbabwe, uses the block placement system with fieldwork occurring in the second and third year for Communication System Operators Essay a period of three months and three weeks. At the ISW, there is only one block placement which occurs in the third year for a period of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger three months. At the National University of Lesotho, the block fieldwork occurs in kingdom of mesopotamia, the second year for a month and in the third and fourth year for two months respectively. Concurrent fieldwork at the ISW occurs at the second year level. Young Essay! As pointed out earlier, the School of Communication System Essay Social Work uses block placements only, but first year students also go for field visits in the second semester as part of their orientation to the profession. Concurrent fieldwork occurs simultaneously with classroom instruction.

The students time is Boy With Finger Essay divided between classroom learning and field based learning. Typically, students spend two or three days in Essay, a week at the field agency and they take classes for the remaining two or three days of the week. The beauty of the concurrent fieldwork arrangement lies in the simultaneous and immediate application of theory learnt in the classroom into practice. The Twisted Essay! An added advantage of this form of fieldwork is that students can share and readily discuss their placements while at the training institution and this can contribute to effective integration of theory and practice. However a major limitation of this arrangement is that students have to be attached at agencies within the proximity of the training institution. Clinton's Impeachment! Therefore, on Boy With Finger Essay, this basis, students are denied the opportunity to System, work in remote rural areas where social work intervention is probably most needed as most social work training institutions are urban based. Furthermore, this arrangement may not work well as the student has to be reporting to both his or her training institution and the agency supervisor. Young Boy With Essay! In support of this view, Hall (1990: 31) states that, the disadvantage is the possibility that the fieldwork experience becomes more fragmented and students are unable to of mesopotamia, do justice to either theory or practice because of the overlapping expectations of workplace and school. It is also difficult to come up with a structured programme for a student working on Young Finger, a part-time basis. System Operators Essay! There is also the risk of agency supervisors neglecting or forgetting about their students as they only meet them twice or thrice in a week. It appears the rationale for using concurrent placements initially at first or second year levels or both levels and The Twisted Finger then blocks at higher levels is to definition, offer students an opportunity to Young The Twisted Finger, gradually acquaint themselves with the profession.

This is so considering that in male horse called, the first or second year of the course expectations are not very high. Students are required to Boy With, observe the supervisor in action and to Cardiovascular Disease: Annotated Bibliography, perform tasks befitting their level. Placements at this level are therefore of an exploratory character with the student carrying out tasks that are not too complex. However, at higher levels the student is expected to be active at a practical level, carrying out tasks that have considerable scope for increasingly independent execution of duties and skills. While the block placement allows students to immerse themselves in the work of an agency and is more conducive to the pursuit of intellectually and professionally stimulating tasks, it also has its weaknesses. One problem is the postponement of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay application of theory into practice until a certain level of theoretical knowledge is attained.

Additionally, there is a clear separation of the young timing and context in which theory and practice take place as students are away from the training institution for a period ranging from Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, one month to The Corrections, a year. On the other hand, in-service placements are appropriate in Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, situations where social work training is designed as part of in-service training. Communication Operators! Students go back to Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, their places of employment, for fieldwork experience in Cardiovascular Annotated Essay, the context of their existing jobs. Hall (1990) cites the example of the Department of Social Services, at Kaduna Polytechnic in Nigeria which offers an in-service training course and uses in-service placements for its fieldwork programme. However, such programmes are mounted on Boy With Finger Essay, a one-off basis and are therefore not sustainable in the long term as it would be difficult to Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography Essay, guarantee a regular supply of students from Young, employers. It must however be appreciated that the choice of the most appropriate form or combination, is based on bill clinton's, the demands of classroom instruction in terms of course configuration and the amount of time required for each subject. Each institution is therefore unique in terms of Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay prevailing circumstances and conditions but it is important to settle for the most effective form of fieldwork that guarantees professional growth and bill clinton's development for the student. Nature of fieldwork.

In describing the nature of fieldwork at the institutions covered in the study it is important to refer to the IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards on Social Work Education and of special interest are standards relating to duration of Young Boy With The Twisted Essay fieldwork, expectations and requirements for agency supervision, the fieldwork curriculum. These shall be examined in the sections below. It also needs to be noted from the outset that it was very evident from the collation of data gathered that, in many regards, fieldwork at the three institutions is generally the same. There are however significant differences in Communication System Operators, the structure of fieldwork in terms of form, level at which it takes place and the duration of fieldwork. As pointed out earlier, the block fieldwork placement is common at the three institutions, though there are differences in duration and the levels at which it occurs.

The other notable difference, as indicated previously, is that the ISW and Young The Twisted Finger NUL (at Masters Level only) also utilise concurrent fieldwork. Duration of fieldwork. As stipulated by tourette definition the IASSW and Young The Twisted IFSW the young called duration of fieldwork should be sufficient and challenging enough to prepare students for professional practice. Cumulatively, the total fieldwork time for block placements at undergraduate level (at the social work training institutions covered) is as follows: No. of block placements Total duration. Institute of Social Work (one block placement) 3 months.

National University of Lesotho (3 blocks at second, third. and fourth year) 5 months. School of Social Work (2 block placements at 6 months, 3 wks. Second and third year) (27 wks) It is Young Essay clear from the table above, that if one considers block placements only, the total fieldwork time is longest at Cardiovascular the School of Social Work, where it is 6 months and three weeks. It is shortest at the Institute of Social Work (as of 2004) where it is only three months.

This is probably because the Institute is not a degree awarding institution as it offers a three-year Advanced Diploma in Social Work whereas the other institutions offer four-year degree programmes. The majority of the The Twisted agency supervisors and students from the Institute of Social Work were of the view that three months of fieldwork is rather short. Communication System Operators Essay! Considering that the students only have one block placement, it is understandable that they preferred a longer placement which enables both students and supervisors to pursue the fieldwork objectives to the end. The majority of Boy With The Twisted School of Social Work students and their supervisors were also of the opinion that their fieldwork was short. This is also understandable considering that the fieldwork takes place at The Corrections Essay two levels, that is, second and third year, for 8 and 15 weeks respectively. Though cumulatively, the fieldwork is longer at the School of Social Work, the time allocated per block placement was considered to be inadequate. While there are both advantages and disadvantages in having a single or multiple block placements at the undergraduate level, it is important to consider these in relation to the context in which training is taking place and the learning needs of students. An obvious advantage of at least two block placements is that students get varied experiences, which prepares them to function in any social work setting when they qualify.

A single placement limits the student particularly in third world contexts where resources are scarce and poverty abounds. At NUL, students go for block placement at the beginning of Young Boy With Finger Essay second, third and fourth year. Though the duration of fieldwork was deemed to be generally inadequate by agency supervisors, 72% of the students expressed contentment with the two months fieldwork. Fewer students indicated that the fieldwork was too long. Called! The main reason given for this position was that social work students do not have holidays, unlike students in other programmes. Fieldwork at NUL takes place during the Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay long vacation from tourette syndrom definition, end of May to July thus denying students their much needed break in between semesters. Some students actually wished it could be reduced to one month and they argued that it should be done during semester time, like the Young The Twisted Finger Essay academic courses. The other problem raised was that students on fieldwork experience acute financial hardships as they do not get adequate financial support from government. One student summed up the problems pointing out that, We endure so many hardships as a result of inadequate financial support when doing fieldwork. It is actually a mystery that some of Essay us last the two months. Two months is too long without financial support for our upkeep and transport.

Some also indicated that they did not have much work to occupy them and they were therefore idle most of the time. However, agency supervisors were of the feeling that eight weeks was too short considering that students needed time to learn and to adjust to the new situation. While it would be difficult to prescribe the form and duration of fieldwork as training institutions are unique in their own right, what is emerging from this study is the need for block fieldwork to be long enough for students to Boy With The Twisted Finger, develop and consolidate their skills. The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) (in the USA), quoted in Royce, Dhooper and Rompf (2007) requires that undergraduate students do fieldwork for a minimum of 400 contact hours. This translates to definition, a minimum fieldwork period of three months. Therefore, if one is to Boy With The Twisted Essay, use the Operators CSWE standard to measure the adequacy of the Boy With The Twisted Finger duration of fieldwork, then clearly, the three institutions covered in this study meet this requirement. The study found that the three institutions covered in the study did not have a comprehensive fieldwork curriculum. At best, the fieldwork curriculum at the institutions is fragmented. However, when compared to its academic counterpart (classroom instruction) taught courses have a well-organised structure based on a clearly defined curriculum. This makes the learning and teaching manageable and focused.

Shardlow and Doel (1996:79-80) suggest the following advantages of having a fieldwork curriculum: the requirements of social work practice can shape the content of what is learned by students through a practice curriculum. students are empowered through the existence of an of mesopotamia, explicit written practice curriculum; they can have an understanding of required learning at the start of the placement. practice teachers are empowered through the development of the curriculum as a common currency, so there is an opportunity and a reason to Boy With Finger Essay, become connected with each other. It is possible to ancient of mesopotamia, organise practice learning so that simple or core skills, basic knowledge or fundamental values are learned before the more complex elements are attempted. It is possible with a practice curriculum to know when learning has been achieved in given areas, and then to move on to other components of the curriculum or to find ways to compensate for Young Finger Essay deficiencies in the learning environment if, for example, live practice with clients is not generating appropriate learning experiences, other methods of learning can be used. The curriculum allows for syndrom a range of different learning opportunities and learning methods to be used: this can be well- organised and planned before the start of the Young Boy With Essay placement. The examination of practice competence can be structured and harmonized to fit with the pace of learning. An analysis of the fieldwork course materials at the institutions reveals that the only documents in use are fieldwork placement forms, that is, background information forms, assessment forms, guidelines for writing fieldwork reports, contract forms in the case of the School of Social Work, and letters of introduction for students. Of concern was the lack of called Fieldwork Manuals at Young Finger Essay two of the institutions. Manuals provide valuable reference material for students, agency supervisors and social work educators. Though the School of Social Work has a fieldwork manual, which probably needs updating as it is a 1990 publication, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have this manual.

Commenting on the state of fieldwork at horse one of the Boy With The Twisted Essay training institutions one fieldwork coordinator had this to say, Agency supervisors sometimes phone us wanting to know the expectations for fieldwork. To be honest with you we are also at a loss as to what to tell them. We do not have much documented materials on The Corrections Essay, fieldwork apart from students fieldwork reports and fieldwork placement forms. I believe this is Young Boy With also compounded by the fact that our students go to a diversity of agencies which makes it difficult to Bibliography, come up with a universally applicable fieldwork programme. Criteria used in Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, the choice of Cardiovascular Disease: Bibliography fieldwork agencies.

Students covered in the study were placed in a wide range of agencies including but not limited to The Twisted Essay, government ministries and departments, local authorities and Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), indicating flexibility in the criteria used to select fieldwork agencies. Understandably, agencies of first choice for students were those that pay allowances and other incentives. As most students did not get allowances for fieldwork, the need to minimise costs on transport and other expenses prompted them to choose agencies within close proximity to their places of residence and not necessarily those with the bill greatest potential for provision of learning. However on the part of Young The Twisted training institutions, the main consideration was to minimise the costs involved in fieldwork assessment visits (follow-ups). Disease: Essay! Based on this reality, most placements were in urban settings. However, at the School of Social Work, students did their fieldwork only in Young The Twisted, Harare (where it is located). Furthermore, the fieldwork coordinator at one of the bill impeachment institutions pointed out that there is an Finger Essay, acute shortage of ancient kingdom of mesopotamia agencies willing to take students on placement which makes it difficult to secure placements for The Twisted Essay all the students if we are to follow a rigid selection criterion.

We have to Essay, be flexible if all students are to be placed. However, on The Twisted Essay, the same note, the Council on Social Work Education, quoted in Royse et al (2007:5) stipulates that fieldwork should occur in settings that reinforce students, identification with the purposes, values, and definition ethics of the profession, fosters the integration of empirical and practice based knowledge and promotes the development of professional competency. Quality of agency supervision. Though the use of qualified and experienced supervisors is quite critical in any professional training this study found the supervision of students by non-social workers to be a common practice. The study revealed that, 52.5% of agency supervisors of the School of Social Work students were not social workers. 50% of the ISW students indicated that their supervisors were not social workers. 63% of social work students at NUL indicated that they were supervised by non social workers. These findings are perhaps not surprising considering that there is an acute shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies and in the case of the School of Social Work in Zimbabwe this was also compounded by the massive exodus of qualified social workers during the period 2002-2009 as a result of political and Young Essay economic challenges facing the country then. Also problematic is that most of the agency supervisors did not have a programme showing how the teaching and learning was to happen.

It was indicated that training institutions did not provide them with any guidelines and tourette syndrom definition as a result they just ended up improvising. An agency supervisor at one of the District Social Welfare Offices in Lesotho indicated that there was just an understanding with the student, that in a five-day week she would spend two days doing administrative work at the office and Finger three days in the community carrying out home assessment visits. Similarly, the majority of the students from the National University of Lesotho indicated that their programme was rather informal. Both students and agency supervisors revealed that school supervisors did not ask for any written material on their assessment visits. On this basis, it is clear that without a guide or programme (curriculum to follow) it is difficult to achieve the tourette objectives of Young Essay fieldwork, let alone provide quality learning and mentoring for students, particularly in the case of unqualified supervisors. Support given to agency supervisors. It cannot be overstressed that field supervisors play an important role in young male horse, the training of social workers. They are partners in the training process with responsibility to Young Finger Essay, manage the transition from the classroom to Disease: Essay, the field and this requires support and continuous dialogue between the training institution, the agency supervisor and the agency. It is probably in recognition of this fact that the IASSW and IFSW spell out the need for training institutions to provide fieldwork manuals and orientation to agency supervisors.

This enables them to appreciate expectations of their role it also ensures that students are given optimum opportunity to develop professional knowledge and skill. Notwithstanding the recognition that the Boy With The Twisted Essay role of agency supervisor is ever more prominent and important, this study found that there is no clear exposition of the process and nature of the teaching and learning required on fieldwork. It was reported that the training institutions are severely constrained in their efforts to ancient kingdom, empower agency supervisors to perform their roles effectively. As pointed out earlier, the majority of the Young Essay agency supervisors were just groping in the dark as they did not have a clear understanding of the nature and type of learning to provide students on fieldwork. This is consistent with the view expressed by one non-social work agency supervisor that they experience problems completing students assessment forms at the end of the placement as some of them are not social workers and they also do not understand what is expected of them. As a result most of the assessment forms are returned to the training institution incomplete commented the supervisor.

With the increasing use of non- social work agency supervisors, the provision of training and other supportive materials such as handbooks/manuals would go a long way in enhancing the quality of practice learning. Though the IASSW and IFSW (to which they are members) stipulate the need for training institutions to capacitate agency supervisors, none of the institutions had provided training or fieldwork materials in the five years prior to the study. In spite of the System Operators Essay School of Social Work having a fieldwork-training manual, agency supervisors indicated that they did not have the The Twisted manual, an indication that there is probably not much interaction between the institution and agency supervisors. Ironically, the study also found that all agency supervisors had not received any training or orientation prior to the commencement of fieldwork. Though it was reported that training workshops had been held in the past, such workshops need to be carried out regularly. In the case of the School of Social Work, the last training workshop was said to have taken place in 2001. As Shardlow and Communication Operators Doel (1996:4) observe, learning, for a student on Young Finger, placement, does not just happen by osmosis; it requires effort and planning by both student and practice teacher. These problems were reported to be largely as a result of lack of or under-funding of fieldwork related activities. Challenges in the management of fieldwork. The study also sought to find out challenges experienced in the management of fieldwork.

It was found that the shortage of qualified and experienced supervisors, shortage of suitable fieldwork agencies, inadequate funding and timing of fieldwork were the major challenges the institutions have to grapple with. These challenges are examined below: (a) Shortage of qualified agency supervisors. The shortage of qualified and experienced agency supervisors was found to be a common problem. Invariably, qualified and Operators Essay experienced social workers should handle practical training in social work. However, the situation obtaining in the three countries, that is, Lesotho, Tanzania and The Twisted Finger Essay Zimbabwe is that not all social development and welfare agencies, where students can do their fieldwork, employ social workers. This is the case as it is not a requirement in the three countries for one to be registered as a social worker in order to practice social work. Resultantly, there is an infiltration of the profession as some of the social welfare agencies are employing workers from The Corrections, other disciplines to carry out The Twisted, social work roles. What is also worrisome is that even in some agencies that are primary social work settings, students can be supervised by non- social workers.

A typical example is that of the Department of Social Welfare in Zimbabwe, which started employing non- social workers from impeachment, around 2002, ostensibly because of the shortage of social workers. Many social workers were reported to have left the Young The Twisted Essay country mainly to definition, South Africa and Young The Twisted Finger Essay the United Kingdom, owing to political and economic problems experienced then. In the case of NUL, this problem is also compounded by the timing of fieldwork as second, third and fourth year students go for fieldwork at the same time. This is a big challenge considering that a total of about 300 students have to be accommodated in the few agencies operating in the country. However, as social work is practiced in a variety of settings, it is inevitable that non- social workers will have to supervise social work students. Furthermore, in spite of this crippling shortage of qualified agency supervisors, it needs to be acknowledged that non-social work agency supervisors have contributed significantly to the survival of the fieldwork programme at institutions covered in tourette syndrom, the study. (b) Shortage of suitable agencies for fieldwork. Both students and fieldwork coordinators confirmed that it was a nightmare securing fieldwork placements. Young! In the case of the School of The Corrections Social Work in Harare, this problem was compounded by Young the fact that students were restricted to Harare-based agencies only, where the Disease: Bibliography School is situated. It was indicated that owing to financial constraints, it was difficult for school supervisors to follow up students on fieldwork outside Harare.

Furthermore, Departments of Social Welfare in the three countries, which ideally should host the bulk of the students on fieldwork, were reportedly seriously short-staffed and not well resourced in terms office space and transport. Resultantly only a limited number of students could be absorbed. Also compounding the problem was competition from other programmes at the training institutions that were also sending their students for Boy With Essay attachment at organisations that traditionally took social workers only. Apparently this was a problem at Cardiovascular Annotated Bibliography Essay the three institutions covered in the study. Young The Twisted Finger! Furthermore, as pointed out earlier, the timing of fieldwork at NUL, where three groups go for the fieldwork at the same time is also contributing to the shortage of suitable agencies. The challenge is placing about Cardiovascular Bibliography Essay 300 students at one go. Financial support for students on fieldwork. The majority of the students failed to Young The Twisted Essay, understanding why they did not get fieldwork allowances and yet they had a longer academic year than other students. While third and fourth year students at NUL and at the ISW received allowances for fieldwork, the amount was considered to be very little and Communication System not even enough to cover their transport costs. School of Boy With The Twisted Essay Social Work students indicated that they did not get any allowances for kingdom of mesopotamia fieldwork.

On this basis students wondered how they were expected to apply themselves seriously on an empty stomach. Boy With The Twisted Essay! It was complained that support levels for social work students are the same with students in purely academic programmes without a practical component. Tourette Syndrom! This is also an anomaly, if one considers that the academic year for social work students, unlike students in Boy With Essay, other programmes is Communication Operators extended by two to three months and Finger that they also have to contend with transport and subsistence costs while on fieldwork. Lack of bill impeachment visitation by school supervisors. While school supervision visits provide opportunities for students and The Twisted Essay agency supervisors to get guidance in pursuing the objectives of the placement and also to assess their performance students such visits were reported to be erratic at Annotated one of the institutions. This obviously diminishes the Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay importance of fieldwork and it also undermines the learning process. A follow-up of this matter with the fieldwork coordinator concerned revealed that fieldwork does not always get a budgetary allocation and that if allocated it is always far from adequate. Communication System! Sometimes school supervisors use their own resources for Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay supervision and obviously there is limit to which they can subsidise fieldwork commented the fieldwork coordinator.

Highlighting the importance of The Corrections supervision visits by school supervisors, Raphael and Young Essay Rosenblum (1987) observe that even the planning of these visits, has an energising effect on the placement. They assert that: Knowing that a faculty member who represents the School will be coming on a specific date to review progress stimulates the field instructor and student to assess their progress. The heightened energy available at such times should be consciously used to facilitate change for educational purposes (1987:158) Failure by school supervisors to assess students on Essay, fieldwork can have a very damaging effect on the morale of the student and agency supervisor and the placement in general. It can also affect relations between the Boy With training institution and fieldwork agencies. At one of the institutions it was reported that some agencies threatened to young male horse, stop taking students if school supervisors did not make follow-up visits. While it is evident from the study that fieldwork in social work education is marginalised, there are indeed very promising prospects of raising its effectiveness and quality of training. Of significance is that the institutions covered in the study treat fieldwork as a compulsory course notwithstanding the many challenges faced in its management. Furthermore, as pointed out Young Boy With Finger Essay, elsewhere, it is also encouraging that the IASSW and IFSW came up with qualifying standards for social work education, fieldwork included. If adopted, these would go a long way in bill clinton's, transforming fieldwork practice.

Specifically, these include, among others, the need to Young, appoint qualified and experienced agency supervisors, the need to provide orientation and training to the same, the young horse called need for social work training institutions to develop fieldwork manuals and also to ensure that the duration of fieldwork is sufficient. Furthermore, while the challenges confronting the fieldwork component in the training of social workers require intervention at the highest level, that is government and management at training institutions, it is Young Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay also necessary that those involved in fieldwork execute their roles and responsibilities effectively. Specifically, the fieldwork coordinator, agency supervisor, students and called school supervisors should be competent and resourceful in discharging their roles and responsibilities. Suggestions on strengthening fieldwork. It is clear that fieldwork in social work education faces a number of challenges. While the primary responsibility for addressing these challenges lies with the social work department or unit, there are issues that need the intervention of central administration at the training institution. Chief among these is inadequate funding for fieldwork related activities. Second is the lack of a clear learning content for fieldwork. Third, and on a related matter, is the lack of training for agency supervisors. In order to develop fieldwork to its fullest potential and to enhance the quality of learning, it is necessary to adopt the following measures:

There is need to allocate and to Essay, increase the tourette definition budget for fieldwork. Social work is a professional discipline that has both theoretical and practical components. There is therefore need for training institutions to allocate a separate budget for fieldwork in order to Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, cater for the training of agency supervisors, school supervision, development of fieldwork manuals and other related activities. Development of fieldwork manuals. It is Essay imperative that schools of social work develop their own fieldwork manuals, covering the teaching and learning content for fieldwork. Finger! This is particularly important considering that each institution is unique in terms of the prevailing socio-economic conditions, challenges and experiences, the social work education curriculum in a given country.

Manuals are a useful resource for social work educators, students and agency supervisors. Introduction of a taught course on fieldwork theory and practice. While the academic component of social work education (theory courses) also prepares students for their field education, it is the view of the author that fieldwork should have a taught component (in class). This will address two concerns. First, is the concern that students lack knowledge and understanding of learning experiences on fieldwork. This would therefore prepare students for actual practice and also facilitate the learning process during fieldwork. Secondly, there seems to be a lack of interest on fieldwork issues among social work scholars, which partly explains the paucity of literature on tourette definition, the subject. A taught component on fieldwork would contribute towards generating research interest on Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay, fieldwork issues among social work scholars.

In making this suggestion, the author is aware that the Institute of Social Work in Tanzania has a theory course on field instruction that students take before proceeding for field practice. Total duration of block fieldwork. While the duration of Cardiovascular Bibliography fieldwork varies at the three institutions, it is recommended that the total duration be at least six months, which is Boy With The Twisted Finger Essay 960 contact hours. This is based on the view that fieldwork needs to be long enough for students and field supervisors to accomplish their objectives for the placement. With regard to the number of placements at the undergraduate level, it is necessary to have two, preferably in the last two years of training. However, this should be at different agencies, which gives students varied experience through learning to adjust to new situations. Dominelli, L. (2002) International Association of Schools of Social Work Directory.

UK, IASSW and Department of Social Work, University of Southampton. Hall, N. (1990) Social Work Training in Africa: A Fieldwork Manual. Annotated! Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Hepworth, D.H, Rooney, R. and Young Boy With Essay Larsen, J.A. (2002) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. U.S.A., Brooks/Cole.

IASSW and IFSW (2004) Global Standards for the Education and Training of the Social work Profession. Bern, Switzerland, Sage. Kaseke, E. (1986) The Role of young male horse called Fieldwork in Social Work Training, in: Social Development and Rural Fieldwork. Proceedings of a workshop held in The Twisted Finger, Harare. Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp. 52-62. Kaseke, E. (1990) Foreword, in: Hall, N. Social Work Training in Communication System Operators, Africa: A Fieldwork Manual.

Harare, Journal of Social Development in Africa. Mupedziswa, R. (1997) Training Social Workers in an Environment of Economic Reforms: The Mother of all Challenges? In: Social Work/Maatskaplke Werk Vol. 33 (33) Osei-Hwedie, K. (1996) The Indigenisation of Social Work Practice and Education, in: Africa: The Dilemma of Theory and Method in Social Work/Maatskaplike Werk, 32 (3) Raphael, F. B. and Rosenblum, A. F. (1987) An Operational Guide to the Faculty Field Liaison Role, in: Social Casework: The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, March, pp.156-163. Royse, D., Dhooper, S. and Rompf, E. (2007) Field Instruction: A Guide for Social Work Students. Boston, Pearson Educational Inc. Safari, J. (1986) The Role of Fieldwork in Boy With Finger, the Training of Social Workers for Rural Development in: Social Development and kingdom Rural Fieldwork, Proceedings of Young Boy With Finger Essay a Workshop held 10-14 June, Harare.

Zimbabwe. Journal of Social Development in Africa, pp 74-80. Shardlow, S. and Doel, M. (1996) Practice Learning and Teaching. London, Macmillan Press Ltd.