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Remarks of President Barack Obama – State of the Union Address As Delivered. The White House is once again making the full text of the tesco electrical goods State of the Union widely available online. The text, as prepared for delivery, is essay on time, also available on Medium and Facebook notes, continuing efforts to meet people where they are and make the speech as accessible as possible. Through these digital platforms, people can follow along with the speech as they watch in real time, view charts and infographics on key areas, share their favorite lines, and provide feedback. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, Members of Congress, my fellow Americans: Tonight marks the eighth year that I’ve come here to report on electrical goods the State of the Union. Panama Clothes? And for this final one, I’m going to try to tesco goods, make it a little shorter. (Applause.) I know some of you are antsy to panama clothes, get back to Iowa. (Laughter.) I've been there. I'll be shaking hands afterwards if you want some tips. (Laughter.) And I understand that because it’s an election season, expectations for what we will achieve this year are low.
But, Mr. Speaker, I appreciate the constructive approach that you and tesco goods the other leaders took at of mesopotamia the end of last year to pass a budget and electrical goods make tax cuts permanent for working families. So I hope we can work together this year on some bipartisan priorities like criminal justice reform -- (applause) -- and helping people who are battling prescription drug abuse and is elton heroin abuse. Tesco Goods? (Applause.) So, who knows, we might surprise the cynics again. But tonight, I want to go easy on the traditional list of proposals for the year ahead. Don’t worry, I’ve got plenty, from helping students learn to write computer code to personalizing medical treatments for patients. And I will keep pushing for progress on the work that I believe still needs to organisation, be done. Fixing a broken immigration system. (Applause.) Protecting our kids from gun violence. (Applause.) Equal pay for equal work. Tesco Goods? (Applause.) Paid leave. (Applause.) Raising the minimum wage. (Applause.) All these things still matter to hardworking families.
They’re still the right thing to do. And I won't let up until they get done. But for my final address to this chamber, I don’t want to just talk about next year. I want to focus on essay on time the next five years, the next 10 years, and beyond. I want to focus on our future. We live in electrical goods a time of is elton pjs, extraordinary change -- change that’s reshaping the way we live, the way we work, our planet, our place in the world. It’s change that promises amazing medical breakthroughs, but also economic disruptions that strain working families. It promises education for tesco goods girls in panama clothes the most remote villages, but also connects terrorists plotting an ocean away. It’s change that can broaden opportunity, or widen inequality. And whether we like it or not, the pace of goods, this change will only the lithosphere than, accelerate. America has been through big changes before -- wars and depression, the influx of new immigrants, workers fighting for a fair deal, movements to expand civil rights.
Each time, there have been those who told us to tesco goods, fear the future; who claimed we could slam the brakes on change; who promised to restore past glory if we just got some group or idea that was threatening America under control. Panama Clothes? And each time, we overcame those fears. We did not, in the words of Lincoln, adhere to the “dogmas of the quiet past.” Instead we thought anew, and acted anew. Tesco Electrical? We made change work for us, always extending America’s promise outward, to the next frontier, to more people. Ancient Kingdom? And because we did -- because we saw opportunity where others saw only peril -- we emerged stronger and better than before.
What was true then can be true now. Our unique strengths as a nation -- our optimism and work ethic, our spirit of tesco, discovery, our diversity, our commitment to rule of law -- these things give us everything we need to ensure prosperity and essay on time security for generations to come. In fact, it’s that spirit that made the progress of tesco, these past seven years possible. Structure? It’s how we recovered from the worst economic crisis in tesco generations. It’s how we reformed our health care system, and is different than reinvented our energy sector; how we delivered more care and benefits to tesco, our troops and veterans, and how we secured the freedom in than every state to marry the person we love. But such progress is not inevitable.
It’s the result of tesco, choices we make together. And we face such choices right now. Will we respond to the changes of our time with fear, turning inward as a nation, turning against each other as a people? Or will we face the future with confidence in who we are, in what we stand for, in the incredible things that we can do together? So let’s talk about the future, and panama clothes four big questions that I believe we as a country have to answer -- regardless of who the next President is, or who controls the tesco next Congress. First, how do we give everyone a fair shot at structure opportunity and security in goods this new economy? (Applause.) Second, how do we make technology work for us, and not against the hitchhiker story, us -- especially when it comes to solving urgent challenges like climate change? (Applause.) Third, how do we keep America safe and lead the world without becoming its policeman? (Applause.) And finally, how can we make our politics reflect what’s best in electrical goods us, and not what’s worst?
Let me start with the economy, and a basic fact: The United States of America, right now, has the strongest, most durable economy in the world. (Applause.) We’re in the middle of the longest streak of private sector job creation in essay on time history. (Applause.) More than 14 million new jobs, the strongest two years of job growth since the ‘90s, an unemployment rate cut in half. Tesco Electrical? Our auto industry just had its best year ever. (Applause.) That's just part of a manufacturing surge that's created nearly 900,000 new jobs in the past six years. And we’ve done all this while cutting our deficits by almost three-quarters. (Applause.) Anyone claiming that America’s economy is in is elton john pjs decline is peddling fiction. (Applause.) Now, what is true -- and the reason that a lot of tesco electrical goods, Americans feel anxious -- is that the economy has been changing in the lithosphere the hydrosphere profound ways, changes that started long before the Great Recession hit; changes that have not let up. Today, technology doesn’t just replace jobs on the assembly line, but any job where work can be automated. Goods? Companies in a global economy can locate anywhere, and they face tougher competition. As a result, workers have less leverage for panama clothes a raise. Companies have less loyalty to their communities. And more and more wealth and income is concentrated at the very top.
All these trends have squeezed workers, even when they have jobs; even when the economy is growing. It’s made it harder for tesco goods a hardworking family to pull itself out of poverty, harder for young people to start their careers, tougher for workers to retire when they want to. And although none of these trends are unique to ancient kingdom of mesopotamia, America, they do offend our uniquely American belief that everybody who works hard should get a fair shot. For the past seven years, our goal has been a growing economy that works also better for tesco electrical goods everybody. We’ve made progress. But we need to make more. And despite all the political arguments that we’ve had these past few years, there are actually some areas where Americans broadly agree. We agree that real opportunity requires every American to get the education and training they need to land a good-paying job. The bipartisan reform of No Child Left Behind was an important start, and together, we’ve increased early childhood education, lifted high school graduation rates to is elton, new highs, boosted graduates in goods fields like engineering. In the coming years, we should build on that progress, by structure, providing Pre-K for all and -- (applause) -- offering every student the tesco electrical hands-on computer science and math classes that make them job-ready on the hitchhiker short day one.
We should recruit and support more great teachers for our kids. (Applause.) And we have to make college affordable for every American. Tesco Electrical Goods? (Applause.) No hardworking student should be stuck in the red. We’ve already reduced student loan payments to the lithosphere than the hydrosphere, 10 percent of a borrower’s income. And that's good. But now, we’ve actually got to cut the cost of college. (Applause.) Providing two years of community college at no cost for every responsible student is tesco, one of the best ways to do that, and I’m going to john, keep fighting to get that started this year. (Applause.) It's the right thing to do. (Applause.) But a great education isn’t all we need in this new economy. Electrical? We also need benefits and protections that provide a basic measure of security. It’s not too much of a stretch to of mesopotamia, say that some of the only people in America who are going to work the same job, in the same place, with a health and retirement package for 30 years are sitting in this chamber. (Laughter.) For everyone else, especially folks in their 40s and 50s, saving for tesco retirement or bouncing back from job loss has gotten a lot tougher. Americans understand that at some point in their careers, in this new economy, they may have to retool and story they may have to retrain. But they shouldn’t lose what they’ve already worked so hard to build in the process. That’s why Social Security and electrical Medicare are more important than ever.
We shouldn’t weaken them; we should strengthen them. (Applause.) And for Americans short of is elton john, retirement, basic benefits should be just as mobile as everything else is today. Tesco Electrical? That, by ancient of mesopotamia, the way, is what the Affordable Care Act is all about. It’s about filling the gaps in employer-based care so that when you lose a job, or you go back to goods, school, or you strike out and launch that new business, you’ll still have coverage. Nearly 18 million people have gained coverage so far. (Applause.) And in the process, health care inflation has slowed. And our businesses have created jobs every single month since it became law. Now, I’m guessing we won’t agree on health care anytime soon. (Applause.) A little applause right there. Ancient Kingdom Of Mesopotamia? (Laughter.) Just a guess. But there should be other ways parties can work together to improve economic security.
Say a hardworking American loses his job -- we shouldn’t just make sure that he can get unemployment insurance; we should make sure that program encourages him to retrain for a business that’s ready to hire him. If that new job doesn’t pay as much, there should be a system of wage insurance in place so that he can still pay his bills. Goods? And even if he’s going from job to job, he should still be able to save for retirement and take his savings with him. That’s the way we make the new economy work better for everybody. I also know Speaker Ryan has talked about his interest in tackling poverty. America is short story, about giving everybody willing to tesco, work a chance, a hand up.
And I’d welcome a serious discussion about strategies we can all support, like expanding tax cuts for low-income workers who don't have children. (Applause.) But there are some areas where we just have to be honest -- it has been difficult to find agreement over the hitchhiker short story, the last seven years. And a lot of them fall under the category of what role the electrical goods government should play in making sure the system’s not rigged in of mesopotamia favor of the wealthiest and biggest corporations. (Applause.) And it's an honest disagreement, and the American people have a choice to make. I believe a thriving private sector is the lifeblood of our economy. I think there are outdated regulations that need to tesco, be changed. There is red tape that needs to be cut. (Applause.) There you go! Yes! (Applause.) But after years now of record corporate profits, working families won’t get more opportunity or bigger paychecks just by letting big banks or big oil or hedge funds make their own rules at everybody else’s expense. Essay On Time? (Applause.) Middle-class families are not going to feel more secure because we allowed attacks on collective bargaining to goods, go unanswered. Food Stamp recipients did not cause the financial crisis; recklessness on Wall Street did. (Applause.) Immigrants aren’t the principal reason wages haven’t gone up; those decisions are made in the boardrooms that all too often put quarterly earnings over long-term returns.
It’s sure not the average family watching tonight that avoids paying taxes through offshore accounts. (Applause.) The point is, I believe that in this new economy, workers and start-ups and small businesses need more of a voice, not less. The rules should work for them. (Applause.) And I'm not alone in this. This year I plan to kingdom of mesopotamia, lift up the many businesses who’ve figured out that doing right by goods, their workers or their customers or their communities ends up being good for essay on time their shareholders. Electrical Goods? (Applause.) And I want to spread those best practices across America. That's part of a brighter future. (Applause.)
In fact, it turns out many of our best corporate citizens are also our most creative. And this brings me to the second big question we as a country have to answer: How do we reignite that spirit of innovation to meet our biggest challenges? Sixty years ago, when the panama clothes Russians beat us into space, we didn’t deny Sputnik was up there. (Laughter.) We didn’t argue about the science, or shrink our research and development budget. We built a space program almost overnight. And 12 years later, we were walking on the moon. (Applause.) Now, that spirit of discovery is in our DNA.
America is tesco, Thomas Edison and the Wright Brothers and ancient George Washington Carver. America is Grace Hopper and Katherine Johnson and Sally Ride. Tesco Goods? America is every immigrant and john entrepreneur from Boston to Austin to Silicon Valley, racing to tesco electrical goods, shape a better world. Short Story? (Applause.) That's who we are. And over the past seven years, we’ve nurtured that spirit. Electrical Goods? We’ve protected an open Internet, and taken bold new steps to get more students and low-income Americans online. (Applause.) We’ve launched next-generation manufacturing hubs, and panama clothes online tools that give an tesco, entrepreneur everything he or she needs to start a business in a single day. But we can do so much more. Last year, Vice President Biden said that with a new moonshot, America can cure cancer. The Hitchhiker Story? Last month, he worked with this Congress to give scientists at the National Institutes of Health the strongest resources that they’ve had in over a decade. (Applause.) So tonight, I’m announcing a new national effort to get it done.
And because he’s gone to the mat for all of us on so many issues over tesco electrical, the past 40 years, I’m putting Joe in charge of Mission Control. Essay On Time? (Applause.) For the loved ones we’ve all lost, for the families that we can still save, let’s make America the country that cures cancer once and for all. (Applause.) Medical research is critical. We need the electrical same level of commitment when it comes to developing clean energy sources. (Applause.) Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at it. You will be pretty lonely, because you’ll be debating our military, most of America’s business leaders, the majority of the panama clothes American people, almost the entire scientific community, and tesco 200 nations around the world who agree it’s a problem and intend to solve it. (Applause.) But even if -- even if the planet wasn’t at stake, even if 2014 wasn’t the warmest year on panama clothes record -- until 2015 turned out to be even hotter -- why would we want to pass up the chance for American businesses to produce and sell the energy of the future? (Applause.) Listen, seven years ago, we made the single biggest investment in goods clean energy in short our history.
Here are the results. In fields from Iowa to Texas, wind power is now cheaper than dirtier, conventional power. On rooftops from Arizona to tesco electrical, New York, solar is saving Americans tens of millions of dollars a year on their energy bills, and employs more Americans than coal -- in jobs that pay better than average. We’re taking steps to give homeowners the freedom to generate and store their own energy -- something, by panama clothes, the way, that environmentalists and Tea Partiers have teamed up to support. And meanwhile, we’ve cut our imports of foreign oil by nearly 60 percent, and cut carbon pollution more than any other country on Earth. (Applause.) Gas under two bucks a gallon ain’t bad, either. (Applause.) Now we’ve got to accelerate the electrical transition away from old, dirtier energy sources.
Rather than subsidize the past, we should invest in the future -- especially in communities that rely on fossil fuels. We do them no favor when we don't show them where the trends are going. Structure? That’s why I’m going to push to change the way we manage our oil and coal resources, so that they better reflect the costs they impose on taxpayers and our planet. And that way, we put money back into tesco goods, those communities, and organisation put tens of electrical, thousands of organisation structure, Americans to work building a 21st century transportation system. (Applause.) Now, none of this is going to goods, happen overnight. And, yes, there are plenty of entrenched interests who want to protect the status quo.
But the jobs we’ll create, the money we’ll save, the planet we’ll preserve -- that is the kind of future our kids and our grandkids deserve. And it's within our grasp. Climate change is just one of many issues where our security is linked to the rest of the world. And that’s why the third big question that we have to answer together is ancient, how to keep America safe and strong without either isolating ourselves or trying to nation-build everywhere there’s a problem. I told you earlier all the talk of America’s economic decline is political hot air.
Well, so is all the rhetoric you hear about our enemies getting stronger and America getting weaker. Let me tell you something. The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth. Period. (Applause.) Period. It’s not even close. It's not even close. Electrical? (Applause.) It's not even close. We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined. Our troops are the the hitchhiker story finest fighting force in the history of the world. (Applause.) No nation attacks us directly, or our allies, because they know that’s the electrical goods path to ruin. Surveys show our standing around the world is essay on time, higher than when I was elected to this office, and when it comes to every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to lead -- they call us. (Applause.) I mean, it's useful to electrical goods, level the set here, because when we don't, we don't make good decisions.
Now, as someone who begins every day with an intelligence briefing, I know this is ancient of mesopotamia, a dangerous time. Electrical? But that’s not primarily because of panama clothes, some looming superpower out there, and certainly not because of diminished American strength. Electrical Goods? In today’s world, we’re threatened less by structure, evil empires and more by failing states. The Middle East is going through a transformation that will play out for a generation, rooted in conflicts that date back millennia. Economic headwinds are blowing in tesco from a Chinese economy that is in significant transition. Even as their economy severely contracts, Russia is pouring resources in to prop up Ukraine and Syria -- client states that they saw slipping away from panama clothes, their orbit. And the international system we built after World War II is now struggling to keep pace with this new reality. It’s up to us, the United States of America, to tesco electrical goods, help remake that system. And to do that well it means that we’ve got to set priorities. Priority number one is protecting the American people and organisation going after terrorist networks. Tesco Goods? (Applause.) Both al Qaeda and now ISIL pose a direct threat to our people, because in today’s world, even a handful of terrorists who place no value on human life, including their own, can do a lot of damage. They use the Internet to poison the minds of individuals inside our country.
Their actions undermine and destabilize our allies. We have to take them out./p But as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into their hands. Masses of fighters on the back of pickup trucks, twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages -- they pose an enormous danger to the hitchhiker short story, civilians; they have to be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence. (Applause.) That is the story ISIL wants to tell. Electrical? That’s the kind of the hitchhiker, propaganda they use to recruit. We don’t need to build them up to show that we’re serious, and we sure don't need to push away vital allies in this fight by goods, echoing the lie that ISIL is somehow representative of the hitchhiker short, one of the world’s largest religions. Tesco? (Applause.) We just need to call them what they are -- killers and fanatics who have to be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed. (Applause.)
And that’s exactly what we’re doing. For more than a year, America has led a coalition of more than 60 countries to cut off ISIL’s financing, disrupt their plots, stop the is different than flow of terrorist fighters, and electrical goods stamp out their vicious ideology. With nearly 10,000 air strikes, we’re taking out essay on time their leadership, their oil, their training camps, their weapons. We’re training, arming, and goods supporting forces who are steadily reclaiming territory in Iraq and Syria. If this Congress is serious about winning this war, and wants to send a message to essay on time, our troops and the world, authorize the use of military force against ISIL. Tesco? Take a vote. (Applause.) Take a vote. But the American people should know that with or without congressional action, ISIL will learn the ancient same lessons as terrorists before them. If you doubt America’s commitment -- or mine -- to see that justice is done, just ask Osama bin Laden. (Applause.) Ask the electrical leader of is different the hydrosphere in that, al Qaeda in Yemen, who was taken out last year, or the perpetrator of the Benghazi attacks, who sits in a prison cell. When you come after Americans, we go after you. (Applause.) And it may take time, but we have long memories, and our reach has no limits. (Applause.) Our foreign policy hast to be focused on the threat from ISIL and al Qaeda, but it can’t stop there.
For even without ISIL, even without al Qaeda, instability will continue for decades in many parts of the tesco world -- in the Middle East, in Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, in parts of Central America, in Africa, and Asia. Of Mesopotamia? Some of these places may become safe havens for new terrorist networks. Electrical Goods? Others will just fall victim to ethnic conflict, or famine, feeding the next wave of refugees. The world will look to us to panama clothes, help solve these problems, and electrical goods our answer needs to panama clothes, be more than tough talk or calls to carpet-bomb civilians. That may work as a TV sound bite, but it doesn’t pass muster on the world stage. We also can’t try to take over tesco goods, and rebuild every country that falls into essay on time, crisis, even if it's done with the goods best of intentions. (Applause.) That’s not leadership; that’s a recipe for quagmire, spilling American blood and treasure that ultimately will weaken us. It’s the lesson of Vietnam; it's the lesson of Iraq -- and we should have learned it by is elton john pjs, now. (Applause.) Fortunately, there is a smarter approach, a patient and disciplined strategy that uses every element of our national power.
It says America will always act, alone if necessary, to protect our people and electrical goods our allies; but on issues of global concern, we will mobilize the world to work with us, and make sure other countries pull their own weight. That’s our approach to conflicts like Syria, where we’re partnering with local forces and the hitchhiker story leading international efforts to help that broken society pursue a lasting peace. That’s why we built a global coalition, with sanctions and principled diplomacy, to prevent a nuclear-armed Iran. And as we speak, Iran has rolled back its nuclear program, shipped out its uranium stockpile, and the world has avoided another war. (Applause.) That’s how we stopped the spread of tesco, Ebola in West Africa. Panama Clothes? (Applause.) Our military, our doctors, our development workers -- they were heroic; they set up the platform that then allowed other countries to join in behind us and stamp out that epidemic. Hundreds of thousands, maybe a couple million lives were saved. That’s how we forged a Trans-Pacific Partnership to open markets, and protect workers and tesco the environment, and advance American leadership in is different the hydrosphere in that Asia. It cuts 18,000 taxes on products made in America, which will then support more good jobs here in America. With TPP, China does not set the electrical goods rules in that region; we do. You want to show our strength in this new century? Approve this agreement.
Give us the tools to enforce it. It's the right thing to do. Ancient Kingdom Of Mesopotamia? (Applause.) Let me give you another example. Fifty years of isolating Cuba had failed to promote democracy, and set us back in Latin America. Tesco Electrical? That’s why we restored diplomatic relations -- (applause) -- opened the door to travel and commerce, positioned ourselves to improve the lives of the essay on time Cuban people. (Applause.) So if you want to consolidate our leadership and credibility in the hemisphere, recognize that the Cold War is over -- lift the embargo. (Applause.)
The point is American leadership in the 21st century is electrical goods, not a choice between ignoring the rest of the world -- except when we kill terrorists -- or occupying and rebuilding whatever society is unraveling. Leadership means a wise application of military power, and rallying the world behind causes that are right. It means seeing our foreign assistance as a part of our national security, not something separate, not charity. When we lead nearly 200 nations to organisation structure, the most ambitious agreement in history to fight climate change, yes, that helps vulnerable countries, but it also protects our kids. When we help Ukraine defend its democracy, or Colombia resolve a decades-long war, that strengthens the international order we depend on. When we help African countries feed their people and care for the sick -- (applause) -- it's the right thing to do, and it prevents the next pandemic from tesco electrical goods, reaching our shores. Right now, we’re on track to essay on time, end the scourge of HIV/AIDS.
That's within our grasp. (Applause.) And we have the chance to accomplish the same thing with malaria -- something I’ll be pushing this Congress to goods, fund this year. (Applause.) That's American strength. That's American leadership. And that kind of the lithosphere is different than the hydrosphere in that, leadership depends on the power of our example. That’s why I will keep working to tesco, shut down the prison at Guantanamo. Kingdom Of Mesopotamia? (Applause.) It is tesco electrical goods, expensive, it is unnecessary, and kingdom of mesopotamia it only serves as a recruitment brochure for our enemies. (Applause.) There’s a better way. (Applause.) And that’s why we need to reject any politics -- any politics -- that targets people because of electrical goods, race or religion. (Applause.) Let me just say this. This is not a matter of political correctness. This is a matter of understanding just what it is that makes us strong. The world respects us not just for our arsenal; it respects us for our diversity, and our openness, and the way we respect every faith. His Holiness, Pope Francis, told this body from the very spot that I'm standing on tonight that “to imitate the ancient kingdom hatred and violence of tyrants and murderers is the best way to take their place.” When politicians insult Muslims, whether abroad or our fellow citizens, when a mosque is vandalized, or a kid is called names, that doesn’t make us safer.
That’s not telling it like it is. Tesco Electrical Goods? It’s just wrong. (Applause.) It diminishes us in the eyes of the world. It makes it harder to achieve our goals. It betrays who we are as a country. (Applause.) “We the People.” Our Constitution begins with those three simple words, words we’ve come to recognize mean all the people, not just some; words that insist we rise and fall together, and that's how we might perfect our Union. And that brings me to the fourth, and essay on time maybe the most important thing that I want to say tonight. The future we want -- all of tesco electrical, us want -- opportunity and security for our families, a rising standard of living, a sustainable, peaceful planet for our kids -- all that is within our reach. But it will only is different the hydrosphere in that, happen if we work together. It will only electrical goods, happen if we can have rational, constructive debates. It will only happen if we fix our politics.
A better politics doesn’t mean we have to agree on everything. This is a big country -- different regions, different attitudes, different interests. That’s one of our strengths, too. Our Founders distributed power between states and branches of government, and panama clothes expected us to argue, just as they did, fiercely, over the size and tesco electrical shape of government, over commerce and foreign relations, over ancient of mesopotamia, the meaning of tesco electrical goods, liberty and the imperatives of security. But democracy does require basic bonds of trust between its citizens. It doesn’t work if we think the people who disagree with us are all motivated by malice. It doesn’t work if we think that our political opponents are unpatriotic or trying to weaken America. Democracy grinds to a halt without a willingness to compromise, or when even basic facts are contested, or when we listen only to ancient kingdom, those who agree with us. Our public life withers when only the most extreme voices get all the attention. And most of all, democracy breaks down when the average person feels their voice doesn’t matter; that the system is rigged in favor of the rich or the tesco electrical goods powerful or some special interest.
Too many Americans feel that way right now. It’s one of the few regrets of my presidency -- that the rancor and suspicion between the parties has gotten worse instead of better. I have no doubt a president with the the hitchhiker short story gifts of tesco electrical goods, Lincoln or Roosevelt might have better bridged the divide, and I guarantee I’ll keep trying to be better so long as I hold this office. But, my fellow Americans, this cannot be my task -- or any President’s -- alone. There are a whole lot of is elton john, folks in this chamber, good people who would like to see more cooperation, would like to see a more elevated debate in Washington, but feel trapped by the imperatives of getting elected, by the noise coming out of your base. I know; you’ve told me. It's the worst-kept secret in Washington.
And a lot of you aren't enjoying being trapped in electrical goods that kind of rancor. But that means if we want a better politics -- and I'm addressing the American people now -- if we want a better politics, it’s not enough just to change a congressman or change a senator or even change a President. We have to change the system to reflect our better selves. I think we've got to end the practice of drawing our congressional districts so that politicians can pick their voters, and not the other way around. Structure? (Applause.) Let a bipartisan group do it. (Applause.) We have to reduce the electrical goods influence of the hitchhiker short story, money in our politics, so that a handful of families or hidden interests can’t bankroll our elections. Electrical Goods? (Applause.) And if our existing approach to campaign finance reform can’t pass muster in the courts, we need to work together to find a real solution -- because it's a problem. And most of you don't like raising money. I know; I've done it. (Applause.) We’ve got to make it easier to is elton pjs, vote, not harder. (Applause.) We need to modernize it for the way we live now. Electrical? (Applause.) This is America: We want to make it easier for people to organisation structure, participate. Electrical Goods? And over the course of this year, I intend to travel the country to organisation structure, push for reforms that do just that. But I can’t do these things on my own. (Applause.) Changes in our political process -- in not just who gets elected, but how they get elected -- that will only happen when the tesco goods American people demand it. It depends on you.
That’s what’s meant by a government of, by, and for the people. What I’m suggesting is hard. It’s a lot easier to be cynical; to the hitchhiker, accept that change is tesco goods, not possible, and politics is hopeless, and the problem is all the folks who are elected don't care, and to john pjs, believe that our voices and tesco goods actions don’t matter. But if we give up now, then we forsake a better future. Those with money and power will gain greater control over the decisions that could send a young soldier to war, or allow another economic disaster, or roll back the the hitchhiker story equal rights and tesco voting rights that generations of Americans have fought, even died, to secure. And then, as frustration grows, there will be voices urging us to fall back into our respective tribes, to scapegoat fellow citizens who don’t look like us, or pray like us, or vote like we do, or share the ancient kingdom same background. We can’t afford to go down that path. It won’t deliver the electrical goods economy we want. It will not produce the ancient kingdom security we want. But most of all, it contradicts everything that makes us the envy of the world.
So, my fellow Americans, whatever you may believe, whether you prefer one party or no party, whether you supported my agenda or fought as hard as you could against it -- our collective futures depends on your willingness to uphold your duties as a citizen. Tesco Goods? To vote. To speak out. To stand up for others, especially the weak, especially the panama clothes vulnerable, knowing that each of us is only here because somebody, somewhere, stood up for us. Tesco Goods? (Applause.) We need every American to stay active in organisation structure our public life -- and not just during election time -- so that our public life reflects the goodness and the decency that I see in the American people every single day. It is not easy. Our brand of goods, democracy is hard.
But I can promise that a little over a year from now, when I no longer hold this office, I will be right there with you as a citizen, inspired by the hitchhiker story, those voices of fairness and vision, of grit and good humor and kindness that helped America travel so far. Voices that help us see ourselves not, first and foremost, as black or white, or Asian or Latino, not as gay or straight, immigrant or native born, not as Democrat or Republican, but as Americans first, bound by a common creed. Voices Dr. King believed would have the final word -- voices of goods, unarmed truth and unconditional love. And they’re out there, those voices. They don’t get a lot of structure, attention; they don't seek a lot of fanfare; but they’re busy doing the work this country needs doing. I see them everywhere I travel in this incredible country of ours.
I see you, the American people. And in your daily acts of citizenship, I see our future unfolding. I see it in the worker on the assembly line who clocked extra shifts to keep his company open, and electrical goods the boss who pays him higher wages instead of laying him off. I see it in panama clothes the Dreamer who stays up late to finish her science project, and the teacher who comes in tesco electrical goods early because he knows she might someday cure a disease. I see it in the American who served his time, and made mistakes as a child but now is essay on time, dreaming of starting over electrical goods, -- and I see it in the business owner who gives him that second chance. The protester determined to prove that justice matters -- and the young cop walking the the hydrosphere beat, treating everybody with respect, doing the brave, quiet work of keeping us safe. (Applause.) I see it in tesco the soldier who gives almost everything to the hitchhiker, save his brothers, the tesco goods nurse who tends to than in that, him till he can run a marathon, the community that lines up to cheer him on. It’s the son who finds the courage to come out as who he is, and the father whose love for that son overrides everything he’s been taught. Tesco Goods? (Applause.) I see it in ancient the elderly woman who will wait in line to cast her vote as long as she has to; the new citizen who casts his vote for the first time; the volunteers at the polls who believe every vote should count -- because each of them in different ways know how much that precious right is worth.
That's the America I know. That’s the tesco country we love. Clear-eyed. Big-hearted. Undaunted by challenge. Optimistic that unarmed truth and essay on time unconditional love will have the final word. (Applause.) That’s what makes me so hopeful about our future.
I believe in change because I believe in goods you, the American people. And that’s why I stand here confident as I have ever been that the State of our Union is strong. (Applause.) Thank you, God bless you. God bless the United States of the lithosphere the hydrosphere, America.
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Citation , Essay , Essays 761 Words | 3 Pages. What a thing of beauty is the well-written 500 - word essay . Electrical? In some ways, it is the perfect length to express a . certain level of knowledge about a particular subject. It is long enough to essay on time, allow the writer to show familiarity, and possibly expertise, regarding her chosen topic. But it is not a length that requires copious amounts of research. When sufficiently motivated, one can manage to research, write, and tesco electrical goods, revise such an essay in structure, an hour or two, given enough practice. Goods? Given the fact that students.
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Mark G. Period 6 01.24.12 AP Literature Othello Words Essay The word “heaven” is one of the most frequently . used words in the lithosphere is different the hydrosphere, the play Othello. Throughout the play, the word is used in various forms with numerous connotations, often including multiple ones in a single incident. “Heaven” is tesco electrical, used in the first few acts mostly as a “power or majesty of heaven, or as God”(“Heaven” Def. The Lithosphere Is Different The Hydrosphere? 7a). The people refer to the heavens as a God or a divine being, such as when Cassio says “Oh, let the goods heavens Give him. Connotation , Dictionary , English language 887 Words | 3 Pages.
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When that occurs the the hitchhiker short retail part of the Garden Center can be really busy for tesco electrical goods, a few . Panama Clothes? days after stocking the goods new inventory. Inventory can range from a variety of things, for example ; garden rocks in assorted rock pallets, mulch bags sorted out by type, hay bales stacked, and even bird baths. So as one of the three managers, Pete has to make sure things go well and items are placed correctly and neatly throughout the the hitchhiker store, in. Annual plant , Evergreen , Garden 1115 Words | 3 Pages. 1. Tesco Electrical? “Give your opinion (450- 500 words ) whether the government should impose tax on the birth of every newborn baby in order to the hitchhiker, . control population. Tesco Goods? Support you opinion with reasons and arguments.” 2. Write a biographical essay (450- 500 words ) about short any person. A biographical essay tells about the life, achievements and major events of a person’s life. It may be too difficult to electrical, tell the story of someone’s entire life. The Lithosphere Is Different Than The Hydrosphere In That? So you may focus on tesco, just a few important and interesting events of a person’s.
Education , Experience , Knowledge 910 Words | 3 Pages. ?Assignment The student should complete a brief essay analysing the use of technologies to ancient, enhance your own learning and teaching. This should . also include the benefits and limitations of using technology in tesco electrical, learning and teaching. (400 words minimum) Technology has moved on in leaps and bounds within the last thirty years and can be a great benefit but may also be frustrating for some that do not understand how to use it. From my own perspective the internet (computers, tablets and phones) has helped. Learning 916 Words | 2 Pages. ?The purpose of essay on time this essay is to reflect upon any article of my choice I have come across. For this reason,I have chosen an online article from electrical, . the daily mail under the health section dated March 23, 2014. For the purpose of this reflective essay , I shall be writing in the first person . Also in essay on time, accordance to goods, the NMC(2002) code of professional conduct and practice,confidentiality will be maintained and all names changed to protect identity. To help structure my essay , I will be using the Gibb’s (2008.
Blood , Drugs , Error 489 Words | 2 Pages. not happy they will not work to organisation, the best of their ability; however, happy employees equals a healthy and successful organization because they will work hard . to the best of their ability to get their specific jobs done on time and efficiently. An example of things that helps to motivate the employees are get together, family day, discount when they purchase from the company, have an employee of the month, give bonuses and many more other motivational awards. The Human Resources department determine. Employment , Human resource management , Human resources 457 Words | 2 Pages. perform : try — es·say·er noun Examples of ESSAY There is electrical, no hint as to which of the essay on time approaches essayed in this book will . prove most useful. First Known Use of ESSAY 14th century Related to ESSAY Synonyms assay, endeavor, attempt, seek, strive, try Related Words fight, strain, struggle, toil, trouble, work; aim, aspire, hope; assume, take up, undertake Near Antonyms drop, give up, quit more See Synonym Discussion at attempt Rhymes with ESSAY abbe, affray, agley, airplay. Article , Essay , Essays 437 Words | 3 Pages. Electrical? 800 Word Essay Food, health and essay on time, medical technologies have a large impact on tesco electrical goods, individuals and communities today and in the . future. Throughout this paper, discussion will involve the issues that society faces regarding food and ancient, health and how we can create a healthier and safer world for our future.
The food industry has a large impact on individuals and will affect wider communities in the future. Electrical Goods? The rush of today’s society has pushed food production to become more commercialized with prepackaged/premade. Essay On Time? Fast food , Food , Health 826 Words | 3 Pages. eating McDonald’s undoubtedly poses a multitude of health risks: obesity, lethargy and heart pains would be three signs that you might be eating too many of . those delicious beef burgers. We can’t deny the goods cost implications too. McDondald’s is, in a word , expensive. Why pay so much for an unhealthy meal when a healthy meal would cost a third of the price? Madness! Some would also argue that McDonald’s, by promoting a uniform and standardized restaurant format, is eroding the cultural diversity that.
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colorado essay Neuroanatomy and Physiology of the “Brain Reward System” in Substance Abuse. How does experimental use of substances of abuse lead to drug addiction in some individuals? How do these drugs cause intoxication? Part of the answer lies in a common reinforcement pathway in the human brain which drugs of abuse stimulate, potentially leading to addiction (1,2,3,4,7).
This reinforcement pathway, which is composed of both central nervous system structures and endogenous neurotransmitters communicating between these structures, has been termed the “reward pathway”(1). The reward pathway evolved to tesco, promote activities that are essential to the survival of the human race as well as other mammals. One may compare the mechanism of drugs of abuse with that of viruses. The Hitchhiker Story. Viruses and drugs of abuse are both foreign to humans. Viruses enter an animal’s cells and use the pre-existing cell “machinery” to tesco electrical goods, synthesize more viruses, thus promoting their own survival. As the viruses infect more and more cells, the organism may become ill. Illicit drugs can take advantage of an organism in a similar fashion. Essay On Time. Just as viruses take over goods cell function throughout the body, drugs of abuse modify cell function in these important brain structures leading to modifications in behavior. Is Elton John Pjs. These drugs enter the human brain and use its own “machinery” (the reward pathway) to promote continued use.
Just as the cell’s survival is dependent on its “machinery” so is the survival of the organism dependent on an intact brain reward pathway. Drugs of abuse, although harmful to the organism, are able to capture this “machinery “ in some individuals driving further drug use. Depending on our own characteristics (our inherited neurochemical make-up etc.) we may be more susceptible to the illness of drug addiction just as certain people are more susceptible to infection. Certain pathogens are ubiquitous or occur so frequently that almost all of us are exposed to them. Those who have inherited genetic immunodeficiencies fall prey to these pathogens more than the general population. Similarly, individuals who have a genetic predisposition, may be more vulnerable to addiction after exposure to tesco electrical, the drug. As noted earlier, substances of abuse affect the brain reward pathway, which is made of neurons that release chemicals when they are stimulated. This release leads to subjective feelings of well being (1,2). Kingdom Of Mesopotamia. This brain reward system evolved to subserve activities essential to species survival, such as sexual activity and feeding behaviors.
Activities that activate this pathway become associated with ‘feeling good’ (1,2). Tesco Goods. For example, sexual intercourse causes release of chemicals activating this pathway, and the result is a feeling of well being. Thus, the reward pathway serves to promote survival of the species by rewarding behaviors necessary for john pjs continued survival (seeking food, reproduction, shelter, drink, etc). Drugs of abuse stimulate this “brain reward” pathway in a similar fashion, and this is electrical goods, why substance users experience feelings of pleasure or “high” when they use them (1,2). When drugs of abuse are repeatedly used, they may “commandeer” the brain reward system, driving compulsory drug use to the exclusion of other adaptive activities. Ancient Of Mesopotamia. Thus, “addiction” can be partially explained by electrical goods, the action of kingdom drugs of abuse on this common reward pathway, in which drug use stimulates further use and drug seeking behavior (1,2,3,4).
In the following paragraphs, the basic anatomy of the reward pathway and brain structures that interact with this pathway will be discussed. Next, the molecular physiology of the reward pathway will be delineated. Tesco Electrical. After laying the foundation of the anatomy and organisation structure, physiology of brain reward, the specific interactions of drugs of abuse will be examined. Finally, with this understanding, we may examine treatments aimed at modulating this important pathway. II. The Structures of the electrical goods Reward Pathway: The basic anatomy of the john pjs reward pathway will be described below. Goods. However, it must be remembered that the anatomical structures involved have complex interrelationships, and are modulated by other parts of the brain and other neurochemicals.
Many of the factors influencing brain reward may not be known or have not been well established. Panama Clothes. Therefore, this paper provides an overview of the most well established structures and pathways involved. With this overview we may develop a basic understanding that anatomical structures have evolved to promote the survival of the organism and how drugs of abuse stimulate and “commandeer” these structures. Core Structures of the Reward System. The core structures of the brain reward pathway is located in the limbic system, a set of primitive structures in the human brain (1,2,3,7,9). Conceptually, the function of the limbic system is to tesco goods, monitor internal homeostasis, mediate memory, mediate learning, and experience emotion. It also drives important aspects of sexual behavior, motivation, and feeding behaviors (9).
The primary nuclei (or parts) of the limbic system include the hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei, and pjs, anterior cingulate gyrus (9). Also important in the function of the limbic system is the limbic striatum, which includes the electrical goods nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate nucleus and the putamen (9). The nucleus accumbens (NA) has been implicated as an especially important structure of the brain reward pathway because drugs of abuse target it. (1,2,3,5,7). John. Other structures important in goods brain reward include the amygdala and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). (1,2,3). The majority of this paper will concentrate on the NA and the VTA. In addition to the other structures listed above, several other systems have an influence on the brain reward pathway as well.
The endocrine and the autonomic nervous systems interact via the hypothalamus, an short story, integral part of the limbic system, and the pituitary (1). These structures modulate the reward pathway. The hypothalamus is involved in goods every aspect of endocrine, visceral, and essay on time, autonomic functions, and it is able to influence eating, drinking, sexual activity, aversion, rage, and pleasure (1,9). Electrical Goods. Environmental stimuli may affect brain reward via this neuroendocrine axis. Electrical Stimulation of the is elton pjs Brain Reward Pathway. The link between the electrical brain reward system and essay on time, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be seen through experiments on animals where electrodes are placed into the nucleus accumbens (part of the brain’s reward system) under conditions of imposed environmental stress. Electrical self-stimulation experiments are designed in animal models such that electrodes are placed in various brain structure regions thought to be involved in brain reward (2). The animal then performs an activity (i.e. presses a lever) which leads to stimulation of the electrode and the neuronal structure. If the electrode is placed in a structure in the reward pathway, the electrical goods resulting stimulation is pleasurable and self-stimulation is therefore encouraged. In models of addiction hungry animals will demonstrate a preference for self-stimulation over food and drink to short story, the point of starvation (2). Tesco. This experimental paradigm shows how drugs of abuse can commandeer this system and the hydrosphere in that, become even more rewarding than the behaviors it evolved to goods, subserve.
Other techniques allow the animal to press a lever and the drug is injected into is different in that, specific areas of the brain as illustrated below. If the point of injection is not within the brain reward pathway, reinforcement will not occur. Through these techniques, general anatomy of the brain reward system has been delineated. Experimental Self-Stimulation of the Brain Reward Pathway. Core Structures of the Reward System. As discussed before the reward pathway, located in the limbic system, is primarily made up of tesco goods core structures that are connected by the median forebrain bundle (MFB): the nucleus accumbens (NA) , the ventral tegmental area (VTA) , the ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the ancient of mesopotamia hypothalamus, and the amygdala (1,2,3,7). Tesco Electrical Goods. The NA and is different in that, the VTA are the tesco electrical goods most frequently implicated structures in the literature on drug reward.
The MFB is ancient kingdom, composed of nerves that connect the septum, amygdala, the NA and the olfactory tubercle with the hypothalamus and the VTA (1,9). In other words, the tesco electrical goods MFB is like a power line of neurons connecting the structures of the reward pathway with other brain structures. Essay On Time. Experiments demonstrate that when this “power line” is cut, animals will decrease or stop self-administration of drugs. Thus, an intact MFB appears to be necessary for the “brain reward” system to function properly. Below are slides that show the anatomy of tesco electrical neurons and the electrical activity that occurs between them. NEURON AND NEURON FUNCTION. ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BETWEEN TWO NEURONS. Dopaminergic neurons making up the structure MFB or “power line” of the brain reward system run from the VTA to other structures involved in brain reward. The neurotransmitter they release is called dopamine. One can think of this as the “current”, or energy of the brain reward system (1,2,3).
2.2 Communicating Brain Structures. The central reward pathway of the tesco electrical goods brain sends information to and receives input from many other brain structures: the reticular activating system (RAS), the central gray around the aqueduct of than the hydrosphere in that Sylvius, limbic regions, and the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Located in the brain stem, the RAS controls attention and arousal to tesco goods, various sensory inputs from our environment. Limbic regions such as the panama clothes amygdala, the septum and the thalamus provide input to the reward pathway concerning motivational and emotional variables. Next, the tesco electrical goods reward pathway interacts with the basal ganglia and cerebellum to modify motor activity. These interactions between the reward pathway and other regions of the brain are complex (1). The hypothalamus, control center of the essay on time autonomic nervous system, serves as a major integrative circuit between the nervous and endocrine systems (1,2).
The components of the hypothalamus monitor blood nutrients as well as endogenous compounds in order to maintain homeostasis. Electrical Goods. To promote adaptive behaviors such as obtaining food, water, and sexual activity, the pituitary signals secretion of hormones that interact with the reward system (1,10). Thus, the hypothalamus is the command center interconnecting the reward pathway with the body and environmental stimuli. These stimuli are analogous to a complex array of music each a melody of summation in panama clothes the form of endocrine hormones, blood temperature, blood osmolarity, blood volume, and neurotransmitters are deciphered and directed by the hypothalamus. This command center then sends out signals in tesco goods the form of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) to various parts of the brain including the brain reward system. Why do recovered substance users relapse when their lives get stressful? The answer partially lies in the neurophysiology of the brain and interaction of environmental stimuli on it. Links between the hypthalamo-hypophyseal system and brain reward pathways have been established through experimentation. For example, the linkage between environmental and increased drug use is is elton john, most likely mediated by the hypothalamus. Stress increases the self-administration of tesco drugs of abuse, and co-administration of pituitary hormones alter self-administration in animal experiments. These experiments further support the view that environmental factors have a large influence on drug use and relapse (1,2).
III. Genetic and Biological evidence for a Common Reward Pathway. 3.1 Evolution of the Pathway. As noted earlier, the intrinsic purpose of an endogenous reward center is to reinforce behaviors that promote the survival of a species. When drugs of abuse (DOA) stimulate this center, drug-seeking behavior is also promoted. 3.2 Genetics and essay on time, Population Studies. Why do studies show that many individuals experiment with DOA but only some become addicted? Genetic studies in both animals and humans have contributed to our ability to answer this question. Genetic studies on animal, or rodent populations, generally consist of inbreeding or selective breeding. Mating brothers, sisters, or first cousins creates inbred strains of rodents.
After 20 generations of tesco mating a strain is created that is, for is different all practical purposes, genetically identical (1). The next step is to electrical goods, look at differences in response to DOA through experimentation on different rodent strains. In selective breeding, a desirable trait is chosen. For example, researchers may breed for a high response to EtOH. Rodents who have the desirable trait are then mated. After 20 generations the ancient strain is considered genetically pure for the desired trait. Through such selective inbreeding experiments, it has been shown that a predilection for drug dependence is highly genetically influenced. Furthermore, those genetically predisposed to abuse one class of drugs may also abuse drugs of goods another class. Panama Clothes. It has been demonstrated that strains predisposed to cocaine abuse are predisposed to tesco goods, opiate addiction as well. Human studies investigating the genetics of drug abuse consist of either adoption or twin studies (1).
Adoption studies allow us to separate genetic and environmental factors by looking at individuals in an environment and comparing them to their genetically different adoptive parents. The individuals are then compared to their biological parents. With a large number of panama clothes individuals, traits that are primarily under genetic influence and traits that are under environmental influence may be described. In twin studies, identical and fraternal twins are compared. Identical twins share 100% of their genes while fraternal twins share 50% of their genes. Goods. The relative agreement of behavioral traits to these percentages suggests the proportion of the hitchhiker story genetic and environmental influences. Some studies incorporate both adoptive and twin study paradigms to study addiction.
Through these studies scientists have shown that experimentation and initial use of drugs may be more environmentally determined by such factors as availability. However, progression on to drug dependence or addiction after exposure or “experimentation” appears to goods, be heavily genetically influenced (1,9). IV. Molecular Physiology of the Reward Pathway. Dopamine Binding at the Neuron Level. The primary neurotransmitter of the reward pathway is dopamine (1,2,3,4). The Hitchhiker Short Story. Although drugs of abuse often act through separate mechanisms and on tesco electrical goods various locations in the brain reward system, they share a final common action in is elton pjs that they increase dopamine levels in the brain reward system.
However, neurotransmitter systems are inextricably intertwined. Thus serotonin, endogenous opiates, as well as GABA also modulate dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). In the following paragraphs the major neurotransmitters involved in brain reward will be discussed. Drugs of abuse have been shown to increase dopamine neurotransmitter levels in electrical goods the reward pathway (1,2,3,4). In general, drugs that are not abused have no effect on dopaminergic concentrations (1,2). Pjs. Some mechanisms that may contribute to increasing dopamine levels include blockade of re-uptake and electrical goods, stimulation of release (1,2,3). The specific mechanisms of action of various substances of abuse in increasing dopamine levels in the brain reward pathway will be described below.
Neurotransmitter Release and Re-uptake. 4.2 Other Neurotransmitters and Brain Reward. Even though increased dopamine in the brain reward system is generally thought to be the final common pathway for the reinforcing properties of drugs, other neurotransmitters such as serotonin are involved in the modulation of is elton john pjs both drug self-administration and dopamine levels. Serotonin may be important in modulating motivational factors, or the amount of work and individual is willing to tesco, perform to obtain a drug (1). Serotonergic neurons project both to the NA and VTA and appear to is different the hydrosphere, regulate dopamine release at the NA. However the relationship between serotonin and dopamine release is tesco electrical goods, complex in that, serotonin has numerous receptor types and its regulation of dopamine release is at times inhibitory and at other times excitatory (1,2). Essay On Time. Thus, serotonin modulates the reward pathway through various mechanisms by tesco electrical, interacting with different receptors throughout the brain. GABA, another neurotransmitter involved in the modulation of dopaminergic reward systems, plays a role in the mediation of is different in that effects of many drugs of abuse (1,2,3). GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter located diffusely throughout the brain. Electrical Goods. Drugs of abuse (DOA) act on the GABA receptor to hyperpolarize neurons.
When a neuron is hyperpolarized, it is inhibited from firing. An analogy may be applying brakes to ancient kingdom, a car. Just as greater amounts of gas are required to cause the car to move while stepping on the brakes, greater amounts of goods stimuli are required to of mesopotamia, cause a neuron to fire that is tesco, hyperpolarized. When neurons fire they release neurotransmitter, and since drugs of essay on time abuse (DOA) inhibit these neurons, they release less GABA. When barbiturates, benzodiazapines or alcohol interact with the GABA receptor, they inhibit the tesco release of GABA onto the lithosphere is different the hydrosphere in that the dopaminergic neurons (1,2,3). Thus, this is electrical, like taking your foot off the brakes allowing the car to go full speed ahead. The net result is disinhibition of dopaminergic neurons, making them fire more rapidly and releasing more dopamine in the reward system. With higher dopamine concentrations, feelings of well being or euphoria are induced. The net effects of inhibiting the diffuse GABA-ergic system are anxiety reduction, behavioral disinhibition, sedation, and panama clothes, euphoria.
Through GABA interacting with limbic structures many of these effects are mediated (1,2,3). Electrical. Regions that mediate the sedative anxiolytic effects of the limbic system also interact with reward systems. Essay On Time. In conclusion, GABA-ergic neurons are diffuse throughout the central nervous system and they are extremely influential in their interactions with reward pathways (1,2,3). 4.2c The Endogenous Opiates. Endorphin Binding at tesco electrical goods, the Synapse.
Just as the structures of the brain reward system encourage adaptive behaviors such as seeking food and sex, endogenous proteins called endorphins also motivate behaviour (1,3). The “runner’s high” is thought to be related to the production of such endogenous opiate compounds or endorphins. In addition, place preference (animals prefer the environment where the drug is administered to other environments) is elicited when endorphins are applied to the NA (1,2). Endogenous endorphins attach to the same receptors as exogenous opiates. Through the same mechanism, they both increase dopamine in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3). 5. Drugs of Abuse and the Reward Pathway. Primary Location of Action for short Drugs of electrical Abuse.
Experiments have shown that specific drugs of abuse affect receptors/neurochemical response act in essay on time different areas of the brain. The nucleus accumbens (NA) is the primary place of action of amphetamine, cocaine, opiates, THC, phencyclidine, ketamine, and nicotine. Opiates, alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazapines (2,3,4) stimulate neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The final common action of most substances of abuse is goods, stimulation of the the lithosphere than the hydrosphere in that brain reward pathway by increasing dopamine. The action of drugs of abuse on structures of the tesco electrical goods reward pathway at the gross anatomical level, followed by molecular actions of this system, will be discussed below. The complete discussion of the structure anatomical and biochemical effects of alcohol is beyond the scope of tesco electrical this paper.
In the following paragraphs, an overview of alcohol’s action on the reward pathway will be presented. Because of alcohol’s ability to pass freely through cell membranes, it affects many neurotransmitters and neurons throughout the brain. The focus of the discussion will be the molecular effects in relationship to the brain reward pathway. Alcohol has been shown to excite dopaminergic neurons in panama clothes the VTA as well as in the NA (1,2,3,4). Tesco Electrical Goods. In animal experiments, dopaminergic agonists (chemicals which increase dopamine) reduce alcohol consumption (1,2,3).
For example, the dopamine agonist bromocriptine increases water intake and decreases consumption of alcohol in rodents(1). Dopamine agonists, however have not successfully reduced alcohol consumption in human experiments. Neurotransmitters other than dopamine are involved in alcohol dependence. Studies demonstrated that serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (medications that are commonly prescribed for depression such as fluoxetine ) may decrease consumption of alcohol in both rodents and in humans (2). It is not known whether this is due to a direct or an indirect effect of the hitchhiker short story serotonin on dopaminergic systems, or a combination effect. Larger scale replication studies are needed before this is understood. The effects of tesco serotoninergic medications on drug self-administration may be due to their effects on motivational factors, as opposed to the specific reinforcing effects of the drug by modulating the ancient kingdom of mesopotamia reinforcing properties of other reinforcers such as food, water, alcohol and drugs of abuse (2). Opiate Action in the Brain.
Opiates influence dopamine levels and brain reward indirectly by inhibiting GABA neurons in the VTA (1). As noted previously the VTA is an important structure in the reward pathway. GABA neurons inhibit dopaminergic neurons in the VTA. Thus when opiates inhibit GABA neurons, dopaminergic neurons are free to fire more often. In essence, opiates remove the “brakes” from dopaminergic neurons and allow them to electrical goods, fire more rapidly resulting in an increase of dopamine release (1,2). Numerous studies support opiate action in key structures of the reward pathway. For example, dopaminergic neuronal lesions of the NA or the VTA have been shown to either reduce or eliminate opiate reinforced behavior (1,3).
Opiate administration into the VTA leads to an increase in dopamine neurotransmitter release and promotes further self-administration (1). These studies further support the role of the brain reward system in opiate addiction. Some experiments chronic dopamine blockade is unsuccessful at altering opiate self-administration, providing evidence that non-dopamine dependent reward pathways for opiate addiction also exist. (1,3). However, most experiments demonstrate that opiates function by stimulating both the NA and pjs, the VTA, both of which are key structures in the reward pathway. However, as lesions to dopaminergic neurons do not completely eliminate self-administration of goods opiates in of mesopotamia some experiments, indirect and dopamine independent mechanisms of opiate addiction and reinforcement also exist (3). Like other drugs of abuse, stimulants increase dopamine concentrations in the brain reward pathway (1,2,3,4,7). Stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine and nicotine all stimulate the brain reward pathway through slightly different mechanisms and increase dopamine to different extents. Tesco Electrical. Moreover, the route of panama clothes administration of stimulants also influences the addictive properties of stimulants, by influencing the rate at which dopamine “spikes” in the brain. In general, intravenous and transpulmonary (smoking) delivery is more “addictive” than nasal (“snorting”) or oral administration.
Cocaine Binding at the Synapse. Cocaine, like other drugs of tesco goods abuse, increases dopamine in the reward pathway. Lesions to the reward pathway or pharmacological blockade of dopamine diminish cocaine’s rewarding effects (1,2,3). Thus, dopaminergic neurons in the reward pathway have been shown to be important in essay on time the reinforcing effects of tesco electrical cocaine (2). This increase of dopamine in the brain reward centers is dose dependent (the more cocaine that is taken in, the higher the dopamine concentration in the lithosphere than the hydrosphere in that these areas). In fact, cocaine addicts describe their experience like “hunger”, ”taste”, or “sex” (2). These observations further illustrate how drugs of abuse stimulate structures of the brain that have evolved to promote behaviors that aid in the survival of the species (1,2,7). Cocaine’s effects on the reward system are so powerful that it may override other generally gratifying reinforcers: money, safety, loved ones, morality and even survival may become less important to the abuser than obtaining and using cocaine (2).
Thus, cocaine stimulates the brain reward system more effectively than the tesco electrical behaviors that the reward system evolved to reinforce! Cocaine acts to increase dopamine levels by inhibiting monoamine ( dopamine , serotonin, and norepinephrine) re-uptake from the synaptic cleft (1,2,3,4,6,7). The primary effects of cocaine on is elton reinforcement involve its ability to electrical goods, bind to the dopamine transporter and prevent re-uptake of dopamine (2). By inhibiting dopamine re-uptake, it increases dopamine in short story the reward system. Like cocaine, amphetamines stimulate the goods brain reward pathway by increasing concentrations of dopamine. Essay On Time. Amphetamines both decrease the re-uptake of dopamine and directly increase the neuronal release of dopamine (1,2,3,4) Many experiments have shown the importance of dopamine in the rewarding effects of amphetamines. For example, dopamine agonists (substances that can substitute for dopamine by binding to the same receptors and producing the similar effects) decrease amphetamine self-administration in animals (1,3). On the tesco electrical goods other hand, dopaminergic blockade (antagonists) decreases amphetamine self-administration in rats by preventing amphetamine binding, thereby preventing its dopaminergic effects (3). Similarly, lesions to story, the dopaminergic neurons in the NA lead to long lasting decreases in self-administration of amphetamines (3).
These examples emphasize how drugs increase dopamine levels and stimulate the electrical reward pathway. When dopamine levels are prevented from rising in response to drug administration (either producing chemical or structural “lesions”), then animals stop using the drug since it is no longer “rewarding”. These elegant experiments demonstrate that the organisation “rewarding” properties of the drug are directly related to whether it increases dopamine or not in the reward pathway. Nicotine is goods, thought to affect the brain reward system by increasing dopamine concentrations through interacting with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It has been shown to mimic endogenous (or the body’s natural) acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Nicotine increases dopamine efflux in is elton pjs the reward pathway by mimicking acetylcholine at presynaptic nicotinic receptor sites, and exciting dopaminergic neurons (2). Nicotine receptors are located throughout the tesco electrical brain; however, nicotine exerts its greatest effects on brain reward in the NA (1,2,3). By acting on these neurons, nicotine increases release of dopamine in the NA (1,2,4). Nicotinic antagonists, chemicals which block the actions of nicotine at ancient, its receptor, inhibit dopamine release while nicotinic agonists increase dopamine release (1,2).
Thus, nicotine leads to increased dopamine concentrations in electrical goods the brain reward pathway like other drugs of abuse. Caffeine is the panama clothes psychoactive drug that is most commonly used throughout the world (11). Caffeine blocks the actions of adenosine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to its receptor and preventing post binding changes from taking place (2). Caffeine is a “competitive antagonist” of adenosine. Since the neurotransmitter adenosine is like the safety on a gun, when it is removed, neurons begin to fire. By blocking the effects of adenosine, caffeine leads increased firing of goods dopaminergic neurons. This is especially evident in the NA (4,5). 5.6 Treatment Implications of the Brain Reward System. Operating through different mechanisms drugs of abuse have a final common pathway by the hitchhiker, which they increase dopamine levels within the core structures of the so called “brain reward system” which includes the VTA and NA. A balance between the negative effects of the drug and positive feelings associated with stimulation of the brain reward system determine if an individual will enjoy and continue using the substance or not (1,2). Generally the positive effects or “high” of using a drug occur immediately or shortly after use, by the action of increasing dopamine.
The closer positive and negative effects are to the actual time of electrical goods drug use, the more likely we are to associate these effects with the john drug. Unfortunately, the negative consequences of drug use often come much later and more unpredictably compared to the immediate pairing of drug administration and reward. For example, the later potential negative consequences of chronic drinking (such as liver disease) may not be as important as the immediate rewarding positive effects of drinking. Some approaches to treatment attempt to consistently pair the negative consequences of drug administration with drug administration. Tesco. If one is taking disulfiram (Antabuse), the action of drinking will immediately cause a negative consequence (extreme illness).
The immediate negative consequence of drinking now competes with the normally immediate positive reward of organisation drinking to combat illness. By changing the electrical time course of positive and negative drug effects through behavioral interventions or pharmaceutical interventions, we may be able to better treat addictions in the future. VI. Organisation Structure. Pharmacotherapy of Drug Addiction: Pharmacotherapeutic interventions have been developed to decrease drug use by influencing the brain reward system. The focus in the following paragraphs will be pharmacological treatment to prevent relapse of the addicted individual. General strategies for tesco electrical goods pharmacological treatment of drug addiction include creating aversion to the addicted drug, bringing consequences or punishment closer to the reinforcement of drug use, modification of neurotransmitters to short, decrease drug intake, and long-term substitution with a less addictive and cross-tolerant medication (1). 6.1 Aversive Conditioning. Increasing the negative or aversive effects of a drug is one effective treatment used for alcohol addiction. Tesco Goods. Disulfiram (Antabuse), metronidazole, or calcium carbimide is the hitchhiker short story, used to tesco, create negative effects with the essay on time ingestion of alcohol (1,2).
These medications, when taken, cause the abuser to become extremely ill when they engage in tesco electrical goods drinking. Instead of experiencing the negative effects of alcohol the next day (hangover) or years later (liver disease), they experience unpleasant effects such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing in closer proximity to ingestion which opposes the normally immediate positive reward of the drug (see above). Although these drugs have been effective for some individuals by case report, these treatments have failed to show efficacy in numerous clinical trials (1). However recent work by pjs, Carroll et al demonstrates that Antabuse can be effective in tesco goods preventing cocaine dependent individuals from the hitchhiker short story, relapsing into cocaine (12). By reducing alcohol consumption they were less likely to relapse to cocaine since alcohol may “dissolve” one’s “resolve” to stay abstinent, by lowering one’s inhibitions and impairing one’s ability to make wise choices. 6.2 Neurotransmitter Manipulation. By manipulating neurotransmitters in the reward pathway, we can potentially modify cravings for drugs of abuse.
This can be accomplished in two ways. First, we can give drug antagonists, or drugs that block the addicting effects of the dopamine reward system. Tesco. For example, dopamine blocking agents have been shown to diminish intake of all drugs of abuse in panama clothes animal studies (2). However, application in humans has been less promising. In humans, the euphoria induced by amphetamine administration is electrical, attenuated by dopamine blocking agents. Thus, when the drug no longer increases dopamine levels and causes feelings of well being, the desire for the drug may diminish. Bupropion, a dopamine agonist, has been shown in essay on time nicotine addiction but has not been shown to be effective in cocaine addiction. Medications, which more directly influence neurotransmitters other than dopamine, have also shown promise in decreasing substance use.
For example opiate antagonists such as Naltrexone have also been use to down regulate the reward pathway in alcohol addiction. In addition, opiate antagonists serve to decrease the positive effects of opiates (2). Fluoxetine, a serotonergic agent, has been shown to decrease alcohol consumption in nondepressed alcohol dependant adults as well (13). Tesco Goods. Both naltrexone and fluoxetine may indirectly affect dopamine in the “reward center. Thus, by short, manipulating neurotransmitter levels, we may reduce consumption of substances. 6.3 Pharmacological Substitution. By substituting one substance that stimulates the tesco goods brain reward pathway with another less addictive/ less harmful substance, we may aid in relapse prevention. One example is the use of methadone to treat heroin addiction. Methadone does not have the euphoric effects that heroin does; however, it does adequately stimulate the is different the hydrosphere brain reward system and provides a safer alternative to heroin use.
In adequate doses methadone reduces craving for goods heroin and thereby the risk for relapse to heroin. Methadone, an orally administered opiate, is associated with less risk of acquiring HIV, hepatitis C, and panama clothes, criminal activity - all of which are highly associated with heroin dependence (2). Another example of a substitution therapy approach is that of tesco goods nicotine replacement therapy with the patch or nicotine gum (1). This allows the individual to struggle with behavioral aspects of panama clothes drug addiction and minimize the pharmacological aspects for a time being. In addition, nicotine replacement is less addictive and less harmful to overall health than obtaining nicotine through smoking. This is because when one inhales cigarette smoke, nicotine is electrical goods, immediately absorbed in the brain in a spiking manner, which, as discussed above, is the most addictive pattern of drug administration (2). On the other hand, the nicotine patch provides the same net dose of nicotine, but has a time release mechanism to kingdom of mesopotamia, allow for relatively constant blood levels. Thus, the gradual increase in nicotine that occurs with the nicotine patch will lead to more constant moderate levels of dopamine in the brain as opposed to the “spike and dip” pattern produced by most drugs of abuse.
This prevents dopamine from dipping to low levels, which may then prevent craving. Instead of quitting a substance “cold turkey”, and allowing dopamine levels to plummet, a chemical ladder that uses the brain reward system to slowly change dopamine levels may be used to more easily descend the cliff face of addiction, attenuating the pattern of craving and relapse. In the tesco last decade it has become clear that addiction, in addition to having environmental determinants, is also of the brain. Scientists have found that a common reward pathway exists in the brain. When stimulated by drugs of abuse, addiction often occurs especially in those who are genetically or otherwise neurochemically vulnerable. Short. This pathway, located in tesco goods the primitive limbic system, has evolved over organisation structure time to promote behaviors that increase the survivability of organisms, such as feeding and reproductive behaviors. Tesco Electrical. Drugs of abuse also stimulate structures in the reward pathway, primarily acting on dopaminergic neurons in the VTA and NA. These drugs not only stimulate areas of the is elton pjs brain that have evolved to encourage adaptive behaviors; they stimulate these areas more effectively than the survival behaviors themselves! Substances of abuse may “commandeer” this reward system just as viruses “commandeer” intracellular machinery during infection, driving compulsive usage of those substances resulting in behavior that we commonly call addiction. Dopamine action can be increased in several different manners; drugs may increase post-synaptic sensitivity to dopamine, increase dopamine release, or inhibit dopamine re-uptake.
Drugs of abuse may accomplish this by acting directly on tesco goods dopaminergic neurons or indirectly through other neurons and neurotransmitters. Although these drugs interact through different mechanisms and different areas of brain reward pathways, they all converge on this common reward pathway and panama clothes, increase concentrations of dopamine in tesco electrical its structures. As the mechanism of the reward pathway and its interactions with other areas in the brain become clearer, new pharmacotherapies and than, behavioral treatments may be developed to electrical goods, effectively treat substance use disorders and decrease its devastating human cost. 1.Lowinson, J; Ruiz, P; Millman, R; Langrod, J. Substance Abuse: A comprehensive Textbook 3 rd Edition. Williams Wilkens 1997. 2. Structure. Niesink, R; Jaspers, R; Kornet, L; van Ree,J. Tesco. Drugs of Abuse and Addiction: Neurobehavioral Toxicology.
CRC Press 1999. Ritz, Mary. Reward Systems and Addictive Behavior. The Hitchhiker. Chapter 5, Pg124-149. Ritz, Mary. Tesco. Molecular mechanisms of structure addictive substances. Chapter 6. Electrical Goods. Pg150-189. 3. Koob, G.; Nestler, E. The Neurobiology of Drug Addiction. The Journal of panama clothes Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 1997; 9:482-497. 4. Bardo, Michael. Neurophrmacological Mechanisms of tesco goods Drug Reward: Beyond Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens.
Clinical Reviews in Neurobiology 1998, 12(12): 37-67. 5. Is Elton John Pjs. Dager, S; Layton, Matt; et al. Human Brain Metabolic Response to Caffeine and tesco goods, the Effects of organisation Tolerance. Am J Psychiatry 156:2, Feb. 1999. 6. Childress, A; Mozley, D; et al.
Limbic Activation During Cue-Induced Cocaine Craving. Am J Psychiatry 156:1, Jan 1999: 11-18. 7. Little, K; Zhang, L; et al. Striatal Dopaminergic Abnormalities in Human Cocaine Users. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156:238-245. 8. Solhkhah, R; Wilens, T; Pharmacotherapy of Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Use Disorders. Tesco Electrical. Alcohol Health and Research World.
Vol. 22, No.2, 1988: 122-125. 10. Graham, A; Schultz; T. Short Story. Principles of Addiction Medicine. American Society of Addiction Medicine, Inc. 1998. Koob,G Roberts, A; Neurocircuitry Targets in Reward and Dependence. Chapter 6 73-82.
11. Joseph, R. Tesco. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Clinical Neuroscience: Emotion, Evolution, Cognition, Language, Memory, Brain Damage, and kingdom of mesopotamia, Abnormal Behavior. Goods. Section III. Panama Clothes. The Limbic System Williams Wilkens 1996. 12.Caroll Pharm Iv for Alchohol and Cocaine Abusing Adults. American J of Addiction 2:77-79 1993. 13.
Navarjo Ca, Sellers Em, Lawvin Mo. Modulation of ethanol intake by Serotonin Reuptake inhibitors . J. Clinical Psychiatry 47: 16-22. 1986.