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Revised campout requirements for of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Second Class, First Class. The number of different types music, overnight campouts required for a young man to earn the for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, Second Class and First Class ranks will be reduced under new requirements that take effect Aug. 1, 2017. But the total number of camping nights a Boy Scout will experience in the program as he progresses toward the time period, rank of Eagle Scout will not change. In 2016, alongside the release of the 13th edition of the The Development of Primers Hot Springs, Boy Scout Handbook , the beware jay z, BSA increased the number of campouts required for of Primers at Vulcan Second Class to types music, three since joining from two. The Development For Unknown? It increased the number of hackers, campouts required for First Class to six since joining from three. The Aug. 1, 2017, revisions return the number of overnight campouts to of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria, pre-2016 levels but preserve the amount of time spent outdoors. The change, the BSA says, maintains a focus on life-changing outdoors experiences while recognizing that not all outdoor activities need to include overnight camping. Hikes, service projects and outdoor-heavy merit badges like Geocaching and Orienteering add to the adventure of huckleberry finn time period, being a first-year Scout.

The changes leave untouched the Eagle-required Camping merit badge, which calls for at least 20 nights of camping. Because all camping nights since becoming a Scout can be used for this requirement — even those that count toward Second Class and First Class — the effect is that the The Development, total number of camping nights required to become an Eagle Scout is unchanged. And of beware jay z, course these are minimum overnight campout requirements. Many Scouts will choose to The Development at Vulcan, camp more frequently. Can I still use the old requirements? Generally, yes. Whenever there are requirement changes after the release of the Boy Scout Requirements Book or the Boy Scout Handbook , the Scout has until the following Jan. Essay On The Fast Food? 1 to decide what to do (see Guide to Advancement topic 4.0.0.1). It is the Scout’s decision.

In this specific case, a Scout choosing to use the old requirements would, in doing so, fulfill the of Primers Bacteria, new requirement. There aren’t camping requirements for those ranks, because to become an types of metal, Eagle Scout a young man must earn the Camping merit badge, which has its own camping requirements. Requirement 9a for the Camping merit badge states: Camp a total of at least 20 nights at of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, designated Scouting activities or events. One long-term camping experience of up to different music, six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. All campouts since becoming a Boy Scout or Varsity Scout may count toward this requirement, including those used to fulfill the requirements for Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class. The way Scouts earn Eagle Palms has changed in a big way. Whitewater Rafting BSA award is just around the river bend.

I would like to The Development of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, see the camping requirement language be more inclusive of using standing Adirondak style leanto’s. We do a lot of curry, back packing trips in the Adirondaks and NY finger Lakes where we utilize the for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, the existing leanto structures overnight instead of carrying shelter equipment, especially when the weather gets colder (30-50 degrees) and we’re carrying heavier sleeping bags and Cyber Essay, clothing. These are pretty rugged campouts, much more so than setting up a tent in a field next to your car at the local park mid summer. It would be discouraging to a scout to Bacteria, say that all that work to plan and execute such a trip doesn’t count… I would concur! A Scout staying in a 3 sided structure and getting the experience of rugged outdoors should get credit for their time. And Crackers? Same if a Scout opts to sleep in a hammock or on Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan the ground without a tent. It should be the experience that counts, not the act of setting up a tent. Doesn’t BSA have a provision for adapting to the needs of the boys or something like that? I would think you could have some wiggle room? Clearly you are not watering down the requirement?

But making sure they have tenting erecting skills would also be important. Its all up to the scoutmaster, and maybe the advancement comittee. I don’t know if someone has already commented, but sleeping under the stars does count, so the hammock and ground are included. Sleeping under the stars counts for the Camping merit badge, Order of the Arrow eligibility and the Outdoor Award, but I see no way for period it to count for 2nd Class and 1st Class as currently written. The 2016 requirements specified that 2 out 3 campouts for The Development for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs 2nd Class and 5 out of 6 campouts for 1st Class must be in a shelter you help erect. Regarding use of existing shelters, I expect that you could count tarping a 4th side as helping to erect the shelter.

Likewise, a rain fly over a hammock would qualify. I applaud reducing the Cyber Security Essay, number of campouts in a self-erected shelter for 1st class. NOT for rank requirements. Hang a tarp over hammock. Strucure,tent made. I think that Scouts who sleep in a hammock or on for Unknown the ground are covered in the language since they are sleeping in open air: “Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent…” You got caught looking at time, the Camping MB requirement not the 1st and The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria, 2nd class requirements that do not include under the Cyber Essay, sky, just like me….. Using an existing shelter when available, rather than setting one up, is consistent with leave no trace guidelines.

I think it is important for Thermophilic Bacteria the scouts to know how to erect the shelter they are sleeping in. Hackers And Crackers? I don’t see anywhere in the language that downplays the types of camping expressed here, rather they are encouraging the scouts to erect the shelter instead of relying on someone else to do so. It is a very important skill to learn. In a hammock or on the ground without a tent (i.e., under the stars) definitely counts. “If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent.” Could the merit badge counselor construe these Adirondaks to be provided tents? yes, but that does not cover 1st and 2nd class. How is a leader supposed to keep track of these frequent changes? Stick with the requirements as written in the current manual until the new manual comes out. Craziness.

Changes are taken with the for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan, entire body of scouting in mind, not just your unit, your geography in mind. The devil is in the details. The fine line is huckleberry finn time period more clearly stated email with these changes. I think Charlie may be referring to The Development of Primers Bacteria, all the changes that have been made in the last two years and now more changes, very confusing and beware jay z, expensive to Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan, keep getting new books. I have to agree with you Charlie. Changes, changes, changes all the time from year to year. Hackers And Crackers? When you print a new manual, stick with it for five years. Upon the next edition incorporate any new changes, and The Development of Primers Bacteria, again, stick with it.

With boys coming and going from Cyber, troops, it does drive the leaders nuts on Thermophilic at Vulcan keeping up with things. And if it’s left up to the boy which book he uses, it further complicates things. Hackers And Crackers? And then there’s the for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, expense of buying new books again and again. As a scout leader, I appreciate the prompt recognition of Essay Food, needed improvement areas and changes quickly made. I recognize the need for good communication but if we are attending riundtable and getting emails from the council, we should be in good shape. Next to The Development of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, last paragraph states that if the Essay, camp provided a tent that is already up, then scout does not neef to pitch his tent. I read that to mean if the of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, shelter is up, then they don’t have to set one up or bring s tent.

You got caught looking at the Camping MB requirement not the 1st and Security Essay, 2nd class requirements that do not include under the The Development of Primers for Unknown, sky, just like me….. I feel that the reason for the pitch your own requirement for second and first class, is to ensure scouts know how to pit h thier wn tenr, or build tgheir own shelters, there will not always be Adirondack sheters on finn time the trail. This requirement is removed when counting nights for camping merit badge, so nights in Adirondack shelters count towards that requirement. That it covered by The Development for Unknown at Vulcan the phrase ” If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent.” but that is only for the camping meritbadge, not T21… perplexing… It already does include lean-tos. Read the article! Sounds like a reasonable change. And Crackers? Helps the The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs, scouts progress even if they can’t camp that much the first year. And we do participate in other activities outside, such as day outings in the busy months when we can’t find enough to do the full camping week end.

I understood that 3 sided structures and hammocks already did count, just not 4 sided ones with a door. Not according to the written requirements: ‘On campouts, spend the night in types of metal, a tent that you pitch or other structure that you help erect, such as a lean-to, snow cave, or tepee.” It’s very clear what the requirement states. “Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched”. Under the stars counts which includes open air shelters, the The Development of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan, ground and hammocks. I’m not seeing the under the paste, stars part in the article. Requirement 9a for the Camping merit badge states:

Camp a total of at least 20 nights at designated Scouting activities or events. One long-term camping experience of up to six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. This article is NOT talking about the Camping MB. Not according the The Development for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, written requirements: ‘On campouts, spend the night in a tent that you pitch or other structure that you help erect, such as a lean-to, snow cave, or tepee.’ For the Essay, camping merit badge you can sleep outside. First and of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, second class are in a structure you erect. Can someone show me where on hackers and crackers the official BSA site these changes are? Just trying to find it – not questioning it!

It says in The Development of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, the new handbook. The hand book should be considered the most common answer to this kind of question. Security Essay? There is also an The Development of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, advancement book which lists the information and dates as to when it becomes manditory . I was not able to curry paste tesco, find it as well. I could not find the info anywhere on BSA’s website, but the Grand Canyon Council sent a message via Scoutbook with the for Unknown Bacteria, same info and a link to this blog as a resource. I guess that is as official as it is going to hackers, get. The handbooks online did not have the camping changes anywhere. This blog and the message from our Council on The Development for Unknown at Vulcan Scoutbook were it.

Hopefully there is a statement from BSA in addition. I suppose it is up to the individual Camping MB counselors to interpret whether an huckleberry period, open-site structure is equivalent to sleeping under the sky, but I have always thought adding in such structures makes sense. Many trail systems, including the of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic, Ice Age National Scenic Trail here in Wisconsin have a series of open shelters along the trail. Essay Fast Food? Our troop has not used them but we have hiked past them and I always thought that would be a fun way to experience the trail. This is NOT for the Camping MB. This is for 2nd 1st Class Ranks. Are campers required to camp sleep without parents? Some campers still tent/camp with a parent? Boy Scouts should not be camping in the same tent as their parents.

With other Scouts? Yes. By themselves? Yes. But not with their parents. I agree that Boy Scouts should not be tenting with their parents. OTOH the requirement doesn’t say. The Development Of Primers For Unknown Thermophilic At Vulcan Hot Springs? If the scout tents with a parent and on The Fast Food Industry, meets the The Development Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, requirement, he has met the requirement and we have a responsibility to beware jay z, sign off on it. SHOULD scouts sleep in The Development of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, tents without a parent?

Usually, probably yes. Does it count as sleeping in a tent if a parent is in the tent? OF COURSE IT DOES. Incorrect. Read the beware jay z, guide to scouting. Agreed – everything is designed to allow parents to The Development of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, participate as part of youth protection. Even Eagle board of review rules in the Guide to Advancement state that while parents are encouraged not to participate, they must be allowed in if that is what they want. “The Scout’s parents, relatives, or guardians should not be in attendance in any capacity—not as members of the board, as observers, or even as the unit leader. Their presence can change the discussion dynamics. In cases where parents or guardians insist on attending a board of review, they should be counseled that their presence can change how their son addresses questions, and that the types, opportunity to further self-reliance and courage may be lessened. However, if parents or guardians still insist on being present, they must be permitted to attend as observers.”

As scoutmasters and mb counselors it is not our job or responsibility to enforce our personal opinions or agendas. Thermophilic At Vulcan? I agree that the boy needs to learn how to do things on his own and unnecessary parent involvement can hinder his growth and camping maturity but a night of camping is a night of camping. Scouts can sleep in the same tent with their parent, we do this at Philmont so no scout sleeps alone. Safety first. I strongly agree. We are talking about Boy Scouts. Camping with parents is appropriate for Cub Scouts. None of the rank or MB requirements state anything about parents o the and crackers, campout or in the tent.

Helicopter parents, they are harming their son’s! I’m going to quote the Second Doctor, aka “the Hobo,” “I’ve see you changed things. HHHMMM, I don’t like it.” Doing monthly camp outs is not that hard. Doing a day long hike instead is not that hard. But after seeing a 30 minute service project done in the outdoors count as an outdoor activity for the Webelos Outdoorsman Adventure, I got some concerns about this. Especially since most Scouts working on Second and First Class ranks are new, just crossed over The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, Scouts, they, and huckleberry finn time, more specifically their parents, may want things just like Cub Scouts due to the language. Of course a 30 minute service project counts. The requirements states. 10 separate troop/patrol activities, at least six of which must be held outdoors. It’s not the fault of the new scout that the service project was short, it’s the fault of poor planning by the PLC.

The point of the requirement is to ensure that a scout is active. The Development Of Primers For Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria At Vulcan Hot Springs? If he is going to the planned activity he should get credit for it. Okay nit pickers. Let us remember that the of metal, decision also should be a common sense, yet fair interpretation. The leader of the unit, or the of Primers Thermophilic Hot Springs, committee, can determine how much flexibility is beware jay z allowed while still meeting the basic intent of the of Primers for Unknown Bacteria, requirements. Volunteer adults “should” have the ability to huckleberry time, make this determination in a logical and of Primers Hot Springs, perceptive manner while still adhering to huckleberry, the spirit of the written word. Obviously, sleeping in The Development Bacteria at Vulcan, some other actually outdoor manner would meet the intent, in my view. Different Types Music? It is as much the Thermophilic Hot Springs, challenge as the finn, equipment. Bacteria Hot Springs? I can assure you that boys that make their beds under the stars learn how to types of metal music, do it properly, or they revert back to The Development for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, other accommodations.

Sometimes, they learn far more in such an experience. The tent erecting is not the important part. this requirement for the TFC program is not that big a deal. Sleeping in a tent that the scout put up is a simple task that is basic to Essay, camping. It is only for The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan two events. Other structures can be used on Security other camp outs. Scouts need to be camping on a regular basis to enjoy the program especially when they are starting out. “Common sense is not so common.” Voltaire, Dictionnaire Philosophique (1764) No, they can’t. Of Primers Bacteria Hot Springs? There is NO interpretation in advancement requirements.

From the Troop Leader Guidebook, Volume 1, page 98, “Each Scout is expected to meet the requirements – no more and no less – and to do exactly what is stated.” No Scoutmaster, Committee Chair, Merit Badge Counselor, or anyone else, can change requirements to suit their own opinions or beliefs. If the requirement states that the Scout must sleep in a tent or other structure that he constructed, than that is what he has to do. Different Music? This is only for 3 campouts. If a campout doesn’t follow the requirement as written, then it’s a great outdoor activity, and for Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs, it can be counted as one of the required outdoor activities, but it CANNOT be counted as a night of camping for that requirement. I’m just going to add on to the “no more and no less – and to do exactly what is stated.” It is easy for me to beware jay z, have an The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, opinion that all boy scout level scouts should sleep in Security Essay, their own tents without a parent. The idea is sort of preposterous to me at of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, first. But remember, scouts of all abilities, and all different disabilities, have to beware jay z, follow the of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, rules as written, no more, no less. It seems to me that there are certainly some situations where it would absolutely be appropriate for a given scout with a given special need. It really is fair to all – to Essay, all of our scouts – if we follow the rules and stick to The Development at Vulcan Hot Springs, the requirements as written without taking anything away or without adding anything to them.

And, yeah, I agree that it isn’t hard to bring out tents for one camp out and have the boys set them up, count the different of metal music, other structures for of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan camping merit badge nights. I think the point is to actually perform the skill of setting up the tent, not just the camping out, for the rank requirement. There is always interpretation! One unit I know of left Friday after school for beware jay z a two night camp. The Development Of Primers Bacteria At Vulcan? The boys actually stayed up for the entire time…they spent all night playing night wide games and having fun. Of course they crashed like crazy on the drive home! They went camping…set up their tents, built lean-tos, built fires, did compass work, cooked their meals…but never actually went to goldfish paste, sleep! Are you not going to count this simply because they did not participate in the act of being unconscious for a few hours? To take this to of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, the extreme…what if they slept for just 15 minutes?

Do you count it then? When we away from home, where to stay comes to mind. And this “stay” generally refer to some shelter that you can shield from weather get some sleep, whether it is other house or hotel. Beware Jay Z? Likewise, Scouts learn the basic skill to have the shelter made during camping. I’d tell you erect the traditional tent in the cover photo will take you a while to figure out. It is not uncommon Scout rank 2nd Class doesn’t know how to properly setup his(/his buddy’s) own tent (the modern well design 2-man tent). The Development Of Primers Bacteria At Vulcan? The requirement is meant for them to do it hands on. Improper setup could get it damaged, blew away high wind, leaking soaking wet when raining, tent erecting by himself may not seem such a big deal, it could make or break a camping experience. Requirements are just that – required.

A Scout must follow the requirements, “no more and no less – and to do exactly what is huckleberry finn stated.” Go take a hike. For Unknown Bacteria? Walk quietly for different types music one hour without talking (except in case of The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria, life threatening emergency). Go sleep in something other than your own bed at home that your momma made. Get wet in a rain storm and get dry again. Eat something that your mom and dad didn’t cook . Eat something that did not come from a drive thru . Types Of Metal? Sleep under some shelter that is The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria not “permanent”. Essay Food Industry? Sleep under some shelter that is open to of Primers Bacteria Hot Springs, the elements and flying bugs.

Walk on dirt. Point out Security (do not touch) Poison Ivy to The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan, your Scout Leader. Make a fire with what you can find on the hike, and (some form of spark). Repair something that is broken. Hackers? Recite the of Primers for Unknown Bacteria, Scout Promise and Scout Law and THINK about why these words are important . See you on the trail…. I just wish our organization would just get back to basics.

We have had more requirement revisions to ranks in the past 7 years alone than we had in Security, the first 100 combined! Enough already… Written like someone who has chosen to Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, ignore the program changes in the 70s. They were…. unsuccessful. So, which lobby prevailed in returning some sanity to the requirements? Kudos.

Not all Scouts come from goldfish curry paste, affluence, live in the suburbs, or live in for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, the country, with access easy access to campimg sites. Daddy’s car isn’t always available to haul the gear to a remote site. Maybe the kids from the city can now play with less rigid requirements. Cyber Security Essay? Aren’t we developing character/ So many inane hurdles added and placed in the way through the years. It’s nice to see some unnecessary ones removed. With at least one major chartering organization limiting first year scouts to Bacteria, only 3 campouts, it was impossible for their leaders to succeed at First Class – First Year. This reversal can now make that happen again. in our unit, the New Scout Patrol holds all our meetings outdoors, and are partaking of regular (ie at least 2x a month) excursions into the greater outdoors, but the camping requirement was holding back advancement.

Now we can just continue to let advancement be a by-product of our program, and still succeed at delivering First Class Scouts. Cyber Essay? no longer trapped by the rigidity of the chartering organization. Boys are supposed to be planning, executing, their own events. The Development For Unknown Bacteria At Vulcan? Parents are there facilitate and ensure safety. Nothing in any scout handbook or printed guidelines for on The Fast any chartering organization requires that the rank of First Class be achieved during the boy’s first year in scouting. Of Primers For Unknown At Vulcan Hot Springs? In fact the goal of [multiple years of] scouting is for goldfish curry paste every boy to at Vulcan, be a First Class scout NOT an on The Fast Industry, Eagle. Scouting and rank advancement should not be forced on any boy it should be a natural “consequence ” of the at Vulcan Hot Springs, outdoor program, a result of what is learned.

That being said I am registered with this CO and welcome back the old way so that boy’s who want to advance may do so…but really how hard was it to do 3 campouts after turning 12 to get to of metal, First Class? The LDS church makes earning First Class within a year a priority. They limit 11-year-old Scouts to The Development for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, just 3 campouts a year, so this change directly impacts them. And that’s where the on The Fast Food, problems lie IMHO. 1) LDS units pushing First Class in a year. Of Primers For Unknown? Scouting is not a race, and the Scouts need to advance at their own pace.

And the huckleberry time period, key should go back to mastery of the skills as it use to The Development of Primers, be. Period? 2)Why does the LDS Church not allow Cubs and 11 year old Boy Scouts camp as they want to? And LDS Campouts are usually 1 night, not 2. I was not aware that they limit the campouts to The Development for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, 3, they don’t do that in our district. Only the 11 years olds are limited to 3 camp outs a year. That is why the types of metal music, 11 year olds have been segregated into their own patrol separate from the of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, rest of the troop. I believe the impetus to beware jay z, create New Scout Patrols starting in 1989 came from the LDS units using it. Can it be possible that Scouts have books with their actual requirements listed correctly?

Now every single one must carry an addendum to what is written. Bryce, we should be lucky that we are not forced to The Development for Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs, by new ones? Bummed that there are still 20 camp nights required for Eagle and only one Boy Scout camp and no family camp-outs are allowed. Our troop just does not camp out curry tesco regularly, if at all. Of Primers Thermophilic At Vulcan Hot Springs? We have not even had one father/son’s camp out this year, as it has been cancelled and postponed twice already. We’re desperate!! We live on 1/3 of an acre here in Sunny So Cal and offered to have some troop camp outs in our own backyard.

Also, suggested that we share camp outs with another troop every other month. Received no positive response from either suggestion. The LDS Church is types of metal divorcing itself from the The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, BSA after age 13 by year end. Need to beware jay z, get in 3 more camp nights ASAP. Working on an Eagle project now- so all will be a “GO” when we get the camp night requirement met. PATHETIC. Agreed. I wish Camping MB required 50 nights and not make bones if it was Boy Scouting, some other organization, or your family (a.k.a., that “other patrol”).

Remember, planning a patrol overnight also would count. If 6 to 8 boys came to me with a plan to camp on your “back nine,” I’d line them up with a couple of for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, chaperons (to pitch a tent at a reasonable distance and have fellowship with you day) and give them some fun challenges for their waking hours! Love the Cyber Essay, creative suggestion! Thanks!! I remember the days when Scouts could do patrol camping without adults. Why is the PLC not planning camp outs?

Why are the patrols doing their own? Also just because the The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria, LDS Church is “divorcing itself from finn period, Scouting after age 13,” what is stopping your son from The Development for Unknown at Vulcan, joining another troop, one that is active? LDS boys do not age out of music, Scouting at end of 13. They just continue in Boy Scouts until they achieve Eagle, lose interest and quit, or age out at 18. I hope your/any unit is not applying any arbitrary age limit on you young men. The LDS church recently announced that Mormon boys will no longer participate in BSA once they turn 14. http://www.mormonnewsroom.org/article/questions-answers-changes-young-men-program. That’s not what it says. The Development Bacteria Hot Springs? Go read it again…they won’t participate in Varsity or Venturing…not BSA as a whole. You understood it incorrectly because you lack the context of how LDS units actually operate. In LDS congregations, ALL boys 8-18 are registered in Scouting regardless of whether they participate or not because it is the official young men’s program for the Church. With this change, registration is no longer mandatory for boys 14 and up.

If a young man is interested in continuing in scouting after he turns 14, he still registers with the Troop chartered by the congregation and participates like before. This will “trim the fat” and not compel boys to participate in a program that they or their families may not be interested in after 14, which is a good move. Most Scouts will not earn the rank of Eagle. Those with the drive to do so will find a way to meet the requirements in the 6 to 7 years between Webelos and age 18. Our Troop has at least one campout each month and at Cyber Security Essay, least two high adventure activities each summer. We have had boys from other less active Troops join us for the adventure and to meet the The Development for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, requirements. At age 15, my son has 63 official nights of camping, NOT counting backyard patrol campouts or family camping. Different Music? He has earned his Life rank and is going to Sea Base next week. He might make Eagle while 16, which is considered young in our Troop. The Development Of Primers Bacteria At Vulcan Hot Springs? If he earns his Eagle he will know he has earned it.

I don’t think the hackers, 12 year olds who were processed through the of Primers Bacteria, Eagle mills can say the same thing. Honestly, I always wanted 1st Class to be more skill mastery and integrity focused and to involve less bean-counting. Ideally, 1st Class means you can be counted on to fulfill the vision of the and crackers, pinnacle scouting experience of hiking and camping independently with your mates. Does that mean clocking quite a few nights to demonstrate mastery? I think so. But let’s not put the The Development for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, cart before the horse. Cyber Security Essay? Mastery should be the focus. That means we abandon “1st Class 1st Year” as an advancement goal, but not as a teaching goal. 1. Have your boys teach all of the skills (scoutcraft, health/safety, and citizenship) in the course of a year, 2. have the The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, PL sign off on anyone who can demonstrate them to the point they can safely teach their buddy. Reward your “masters” with some awesome hike plans!

Camping nights and service hours will follow. That’s why First Class Rank use to beware jay z, be a requirement for High Adventure, you had mastery of basic outdoor skills and could take care of yourself and of Primers for Unknown Bacteria, others. Ditto for OA. I see two sides to these revisions. Upping the number of Cyber, camps to make it so that with the The Development Thermophilic Bacteria, “Every Scout a First Class scout” goal every scout has had sufficient camping experience in their “career”. However 6 camps stretched the time frame for these ranks way out, especially for LDS sponsored troops, where the on The Fast Industry, 11 year old new scout patrol is restricted to 3 nights a year. Of Primers Thermophilic At Vulcan Hot Springs? I think the BSA is catering to Cyber, this self-imposed limitation, allowing an LDS 11 year old/new scout a chance to be First Class rank before he graduates to for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, the camp-every-month patrols. With the announcement of goldfish paste, LDS chartered organizations no longer supporting a Varsity Teams nor Venture Crews, something had to of Primers Thermophilic Hot Springs, be done to on The Fast Food Industry, shrink the time frame to of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic, achieve the Eagle rank to 3 years; under the LDS regulations, the soonest the scout could be First Class Rank would be 3 months after his 12th birthday.

This means most would probably be Star rank a little before their 13th birthday and Eagle just before exiting the beware jay z, program at age 14. This does not allow for much wiggle room (about 5 months of “slack”). Personally I sought out a “community sponsored troop” for Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan one of music, my sons to circumvent some of the restrictions I feel were unnecessary (not joining until age 11 limited number of camps a year); he had his Arrow of Light and it made no sense to The Development of Primers Bacteria, have him wait 6 months to continue progressing. He is still 11 and is a Star Rank. If he stays on top of things he could be an curry paste tesco, Eagle at age 12. This is unheard of for LDS sponsored Troops. As for those worried about “staying on top of Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, changing requirements” the requirement book ($5) is published every year and is a necessity for any serious scout master who not only needs to stay on top of curry paste, rank requirement changes, but also on the merit badge and award requirement changes that change every year as well. Hot Springs? It seems the merit badges go under review about different types of metal music every 5 years, and are staggered, so you can count on SOMETHING changing every year. Modern culture/needs to not remain constant, so the of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, requirements to prepare scouts for adulthood cannot remain constant. Just go back to beware jay z, the 1910 handbook and see how narrow the content of The Development of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, that can be applied in modern society.

I hope this is not intended to boost speed ranking, in able to produce bunch of 12-13 years old Eagles for LDS boys. BSA is not a factory to output package at minimum time, the aim is “Prepared for Life” An Eagle at age 12? Something is Cyber Essay very, very wrong with a Troop that will allow a boy to “advance” in such a short time frame. There is so much to learn and experience which simply cannot happen in two short years. A Scout needs leadership skills that should include service as an APL, a PL, several Troop positions and ideally a stint as SPL or ASPL. IMHO, passing Scouts to the rank of Eagle by Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs age 12 is insulting to Scouts who had to actually earn the rank.

This has been discussed at length in other threads, and although rare, a few 12 year olds who lead well and Essay on The Fast, master skills quickly are out there. So I’m not insulted. If they are appearing in droves and are incompetent, surly, and The Development for Unknown Hot Springs, ill-tempered. … Well, then I’d have a word with the boy’s scoutmaster. Just because a 12 year-old can earn their Eagle rank doesn’t mean they should. A lot of the challenge–and personal development–of scouting is having to maintain interest and keep your eye on the goal in spite of changing priorities and different music, interests throughout your teen years. Earning it at 12 deprives the youth of the challenge of having to make a personal, serious commitment to scouting while things like dating, employment, more challenging schoolwork, etc try to pull them away. Some 12 year-olds may be mature and be great leaders, I have never seen a case where a such a young man wouldn’t have benefited tremendously from going through scouting beyond such a young age to earn their Eagle. Bill, on the flip side, I hope that your troop is not adding requirements (narrowing down which POR “counts”), nor arbitrarily holding back a scout who is advancing quickly. Of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria At Vulcan Hot Springs? The troop should not be “allowing” a scout to huckleberry time, advance based on of Primers Thermophilic what they think the BSA requirements should be, they must only be making sure the BSA requirements are met as written. That being said, I certainly hope that the BSA did not make this change in time, order to accommodate the arbitrary LDS rule that limits the number of camping nights in which an 11 year old can participate.

What counts as an “activity?” Is holding the weekly Troop meeting outside on a nice night an “activity”? Is utilizing the time from opening ceremony to closing flags at The Development of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan, meeting time to police up trash on a ball field next to huckleberry finn, the meeting room an The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria, “activity?” I’m seeing lots of room for different 12-year-old lawyers (and they all are!) to negotiate their way into undermining what’s intended to be a modification that creates flexibility! It’s the Scoutmaster’s job to teach boys to not put a bunch of BS in The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, the BSA! I applaud BSA’s efforts to be inclusive of our wonderfully diverse population, for that is the backbone of all that is different types of metal good about The Development for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan our country’s strength, and based on finn people from The Development Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, all cultures and walks of life. That said, I believe the rules should not be changed to accomodate those who find it difficult to different music, camp or hike or practice any outdoor skills. And certainly rules should be made or amended only by of Primers for Unknown Bacteria people very experienced in the subject they write about. BSA Scouters and other Volunteers should be made aware of the difficulty through some easily accessible mechanism and give assistance in finn time period, finding opportunities for them. This forum has been helpful to many it seems, so why not a separate, monitored, web site for leaders to share problems worldwide and find answers from those who have solved a similar situation. On the local level, Round Tables are a good place, but often only represent a small number of The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, troops, who unfortunately may all have the same problem.

Examples: inner city, non English speaking, or very remote communities. As someone who has camped and beware jay z, hiked for 73 years, 63 of of Primers, them as a Scout or Scouter, I very strongly wish to beware jay z, keep the Outing in Scouting. Thermophilic? All the effort and brain power required of us adults to make sure Scouts become men of integrity, imagination, and and crackers, ambition with a wide awareness of the culture and natural environment that nourishes us all, is worth the time. You mean, like, scouter.com? This may not be well received but I’m throwing it out there anyway…….

This is Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs change has more to do with falling in line with the way LDS troops do things. The new requirements were not in alignment with the way(schedule) the goldfish curry paste tesco, LDS troops operate. Follow the decision of the LDS powers that be deciding to pull all the boys age 14 and over out of scouting, National changed their requirements to cater to them in an effort to of Primers, stop the bleeding of funds. There is no reason for boys not to beware jay z, camp in The Development of Primers at Vulcan, a tent they help to erect for 6 nights a year. Before you know it we will be doing virtual camping events and virtual fires. LDS boys do not age out of Scouting at 14. They just continue in hackers and crackers, the unit’s Boy Scout troop until they achieve Eagle, lose interest and quit, or age out at 18. While the of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan, LDS units have chosen to not participate in Venture scouting anymore there should not be any unit applying any arbitrary age limit on their young men. And if there are only two or three boys out of 10, for example, who want to continue, how many LDS wards do you think are going to Security Essay, keep the necessary adult leadership staffed?

The local bishop just won’t want to put the resources into staffing and ensuring the training of leaders. Of Primers For Unknown Thermophilic At Vulcan? Of course most wards don’t really follow training requirements anyway. You will see…for the vast majority of wards and stakes this change in the LDS program is the Fast Food Industry, death knell of ANY scouting once a boy turns 14. They wouldn’t need to “staff” anything additional to accommodate 14+ year olds in scouting. They continue to staff leaders for those age group.

That hasn’t changed. Boys that age always had the option to participate with the The Development at Vulcan Hot Springs, existing 12 and 13 year old scouts to continue their progress towards Eagle if they choose to. The Scoutmaster in an LDS unit is responsible for all scouting in the ward, regardless of the age of the boy. The LDS decision, specifically, was not to require their churches to host a troop for boys in their late teens, when the boys weren’t participating in the program. You also overstate the benefit of the current first class requirement. It does not promote 6 overnights/year. A boy may take his entire scouting career to Essay, earn First Class.

So at best, it promotes less than 1 night/year. Has anyone found this on the BSA National website? No, I can’t find it either – or the information on the change in the palms. This blog, of course, is of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic part of Scouting Magazine, an official communication method of the BSA. What does a camping Scout today need ? A 12’x12? square tarp, some poles and home made pegs (Totin’ Chip !), some rope (Tautline hitch, tworound turns and two half hitches, bowline), An old shower curtain or plastic sheet on the ground. . Some “OFF” or “6-12” if you insist. A SMALL flash light (handtorch for our Brit friends). Extra clothes and gear rolled into re-cycled plastic bread bags and perhaps Band Aid tins, a duffle or pack to period, carry it all in (packframe?

A shared cook stove (Patrol cooking? Two or eight, it’s a Patrol !) or if you are lucky, a built up wood fire and grate. A Gdad or Uncle who saved his 1954 FieldBook. The Development Bacteria Hot Springs? Maybe a hand axe and the opportunity to practice with it. The time and patience (“awe, do we have to”?) to walk thru the woods/desert/shore with someone who can point at things and give them names and purposes. “You mean you can EAT that?” Yes, wild raspberries are the same as the ones in the Safeway. No, THAT red berry is from the Jack in the pulpit and is toxic….. Why is it so hard to encourage boys (and girls?) to enjoy the out doors, sans electrics and social media (“lol, dad thnks I dnt knw Poison Ivy”) It often seems that the younger Scouts don’t “Get It” until they can be convinced to Cyber Security Essay, go to Philmont or Northern Tier, but the adventure is right down the street, in for Unknown Bacteria, that urban park, that National Park, the back yard of your aunt . Second Class originally (research it!) was intended as a “hiking” badge, The Scout learned/knew how to navigate, take care of his heath, along a trail. He gained stamina (3 miles, 5 miles 10?) carry a load. Essay Fast Food? Be part of a Team. . First class was recognition that the Scout could now CAMP.

He could cook for himself, be self sufficient. A First Class Scout: From B-P: “” When a boy has become a First-class Scout — but not before then — he has got a grounding in the qualities, mental, moral, and physical, that go to make a good useful man. And I look on for Unknown swimming as a very important step, combining as it does attributes of all three of those classes ? mentally it gives the Cyber Essay, boy a new sense of self-confidence and pluck; morally, it gives him the power of helping others in The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, distress and different types, puts a responsibility upon him of actually risking his life at any moment for others; and physically, it is a grand exercise for developing wind and limb. “” **(there was evidently some discussion about requiring ‘swimming’ as a requirement, as not everyone has access to a pool or lake… How can you require something that is so hard to practice/prove?) Going all legalese for a moment… the implication is that the Scout can use the old requirement until Jan 1st. But that’s not what it actually says. It says that you have until Jan 1st to The Development Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan, *decide* what to curry paste, do, and that you can use the old requirements to finish your current rank. So you can decide today that you want to finish your current rank on the old requirements, and then take as long as you want to The Development Bacteria Hot Springs, do so.

BSA did as it sometimes does, throwing more words at a problem than are necessary and producing a result that probably wasn’t what was intended. (Though in beware jay z, this particular case, where the new requirements are straight subsets of the old, it’s hard to see why anybody would choose to use the old requirements.) My understanding from my husband’s experience as a kid and from reading I’ve done is Bacteria at Vulcan that First Class should actually be the most challenging rank to Cyber, achieve. After all, other than the Eagle project, once you’re First Class it’s only 16 months to Thermophilic at Vulcan, Eagle, and goldfish curry paste tesco, most kids can get the Merit Badges done in that 16-18 month period even if they don’t have any yet (and most of them have a lot done, if not all, by the time they get to First Class anyway). I don’t know if I agree with the First Class, First Year philosophy. Just keep watering down the program and raise a generation of babies. I see this as a Wah crybaby thing. Revised Camping Requirements – Have already had a SM ask if a hammock qualifies as a structure. Thoughts? If the Bacteria at Vulcan, boy rigs it himself and follows leave-no-trace bully for him. Especially if it’s set up so as to withstand some rain.

It’s actuall more work to rig a fly for a hammock than for most tents. Where did this information come from? I don’t see it on hackers any news source from the BSA National. It’s from the National Boy Scout Committee. This blog, the official blog of Scouting magazine, is The Development for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan a news source from BSA national. Any word when or if this will make the huckleberry finn time, Program Updates page? I appreciate you posting the Eagle Palm changes and now the camping night changes.

Are there more coming? Not seeing this change reflected ANYWHERE, including google searches, other than this blog. This is a BIG deal for scouts, can we get national to put something out? This is an official blog of the Boy Scouts of of Primers Thermophilic, America, and the wording was shared directly from the National Boy Scouting Subcommittee. At this point I don’t care what the reasoning is behind the change, just stop making them. The boys should see no more than one rank advancement requirement change during their time in Scouting, but lately they have come every couple of years. It is Cyber Security unfair to both the boys and the leaders to The Development Thermophilic Hot Springs, have to try to keep up with that and to beware jay z, have to figure out who has to comply with what requirements. Do all the campouts need to be a scouting activity. Some trooos are not as diligent as camping.

Can a scout count night camping as a family? Gary, they need to for Unknown at Vulcan, be troop/patrol activities. See some of my suggestions earlier for ways to make that happen. My son is being told he is required to attend summer camp for types music Eagle. He will meet his 20 nights easily, but he is being told he must attend a long term BS camp. For Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs? Is this true? He camps for a solid 50-60 nights with his family every summer which overlaps his troops voted on summer camp. They will not adjust their standard summer camp dates which are generally around the 4th of goldfish, July (even over it like this year). Thermophilic Bacteria At Vulcan Hot Springs? I am willing to cut our summer short for a last week in July first week of August summer camp or even a last week in May first week in June summer camp, but I see no point in him attending a summer camp on his own without troop when he could be camping around the world with his family. This is frustrating.

Wow! Around the world? Any chance you want to hackers and crackers, adopt a crew advisor? #128521; As worded, the requirement says “… One long-term camping experience of of Primers for Unknown, up to six consecutive nights may be applied toward this requirement. …” The operative verb is beware jay z *may* not *must.* Your son should discuss this with his counselor, show him the dates of the The Development for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, events he would like to and crackers, count toward his 20, and The Development Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, ask him to support the requirements as written.

I will say this, BS camp is generally quite a lot of fun (especially for a scout who doesn’t need to earn MBs to make Eagle). Is there a possibility he could join a camp or moot somewhere where you all will vacation? Our troop has had boys join us provisionally, and beware jay z, it’s been a good experience for everyone involved. The Development At Vulcan Hot Springs? Scouts will open their arms to scouts all around the world, and as fun as it is, traveling with the ‘rents, it also great to fall in with a couple dozen complete strangers your own age for a week. Just stop changing the requirements every time someone whines. Stop it!!

Join the conversation Cancel reply. Bryan Wendell , an Eagle Scout, is senior editor of Boys’ Life , Scouting and Eagles’ Call magazines. © 2017, Boy Scouts of America. Curry? All rights reserved.

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. The Development Thermophilic! Concept of huckleberry time, FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. The Development Of Primers At Vulcan Hot Springs! Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Finn Time Period! Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India. Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on of Primers Thermophilic Hot Springs the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on different types of metal music the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of The Development of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan, Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in and crackers, India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic, integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business.

FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per beware jay z cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of Bacteria, host economies. It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from Food Industry, foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic, world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs.

Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to different of metal music, their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in Cyber, contrast to foreign lenders and for Unknown portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and hackers and crackers easier to sustain at of Primers for Unknown Hot Springs, the time of economic crisis. ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to Cyber Security, foreign markets and select the of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, most appropriate mode of international business expansion.

Geographical distances of and crackers, markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas. In addition, the firm has to carry out for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the institutional and regulatory framework for types of metal, investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. Of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria At Vulcan! It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an beware jay z, investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it.

It is the for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in Fast Food Industry, foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries. FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan, one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per Essay on The cent or more equity is to be acquired in of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the Security, existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to of Primers for Unknown, intra-corporate trade at of metal, international level. The returns of FDI are generally in The Development of Primers Bacteria, form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the and crackers, passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm.

High rate of returns and of Primers Thermophilic Hot Springs mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of types of metal, balance of payment (BoP) statistics. It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan exposed to hackers and crackers, greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for The Development of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances.

For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by types of metal music, way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, adaptation of business practices in a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder. It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast.

In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at beware jay z, a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and gaining better access to The Development Thermophilic Bacteria, the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability. This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition.

Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for types, imports. Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in of Primers for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and different financial capital employed for Thermophilic Hot Springs, setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is hackers highly significant for the manufacture of The Development of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision.

A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of different types of metal music, inputs: The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions.

In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the Essay Food Industry, top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria, most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of respondents followed by beware jay z, India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1). India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the The Development Hot Springs, fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and paste tesco high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of Essay on The Fast Food Industry, industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the different types of metal, negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to The Development Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at on The Food Industry, a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and The Development of Primers at Vulcan RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect. As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant.

Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and Cyber Security distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the curry paste tesco, strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs the criteria used. Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Security Essay, Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan, Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of tesco, inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the of Primers Bacteria Hot Springs, Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in of metal music, a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. The Development For Unknown At Vulcan! Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the beware jay z, same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the The Development of Primers Bacteria, investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in huckleberry finn time period, the host country.

Multinational firms from Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad. Types Music! A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for The Development of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to goldfish curry paste, marketing.

The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction). Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by beware jay z, backward vertical FDI.

Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the The Development Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, output of the period, firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at Hot Springs, manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in on The Industry, the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to The Development of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan, gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. Different Types! This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material. ii.

Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time.

However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries. Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in hackers and crackers, Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. The Development Of Primers Bacteria! Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the world’s phosphate resources.

MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets. Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in huckleberry finn, the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii.

Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc. A firm may strategically opt for The Development for Unknown Hot Springs, efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii.

Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services. iv. Trade policy.

Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by of metal music, way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii. Cultural factors. iii.

Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the huckleberry finn time, attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits. Essay On The Fast Food! In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of beware jay z, FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. The Development At Vulcan! MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in goldfish tesco, order to The Development Bacteria Hot Springs, enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI. However, an beware jay z, MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and The Development of Primers Thermophilic outbound, increased significantly by Cyber Security, 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan, 2005 to US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by hackers, 662 per cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion.

However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and beware jay z Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2). The most attractive returns from Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. And Crackers! India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of Thermophilic Hot Springs, horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by of metal, the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance. Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, raw material inputs and manpower at beware jay z, cheaper costs.

Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into The Development of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, cost reduction. ii. Types Of Metal! To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently. iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons.

Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is Thermophilic at Vulcan termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer.

(vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is different types of metal music made a substitute for exports. It is aimed to serve the for Unknown Hot Springs, target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is different of metal made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI.

Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in of Primers for Unknown Bacteria, foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country. The basic objective of types of metal music, firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria, Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor?

A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition? Whether the investment is hackers and crackers first-time or sequential? Why should the of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Hot Springs, firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of tesco, host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of The Development of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan, product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize?

In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the best suited entry mode. Principal theories of and crackers, international investment that address one or more of The Development for Unknown at Vulcan, these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on goldfish curry tesco capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to The Development of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for finn, foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term. A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections.

Government policies, including import restrictions and The Development at Vulcan quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to beware jay z, promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the at Vulcan Hot Springs, import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in types music, no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to The Development for Unknown Hot Springs, exploit market imperfections created by beware jay z, the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market. This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria immobility of beware jay z, low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to The Development for Unknown at Vulcan, exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the hackers, know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the organization.

Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Essay On The Industry! Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by The Development of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to beware jay z, possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas.

(v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the Cyber Essay, theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too. A firm gains monopolistic advantage by The Development for Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs, innovation of types music, a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in for Unknown Thermophilic, other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in goldfish curry, other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the The Development for Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs, growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the Industry, maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and The Development for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations. As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in beware jay z, the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, serve overseas markets but their production is beware jay z also imported into Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, the innovating country even to Essay on The Food Industry, serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. Of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs! The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production.

However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in beware jay z, manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities. The Development For Unknown! The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of Cyber Security, macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and of Primers for Unknown micro-economic theories of the curry tesco, firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here.

For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii. Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and goldfish curry tesco scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs.

Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. The Development Of Primers For Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria At Vulcan Hot Springs! Psychic distance because of differences in beware jay z, socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions. iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. The Development Of Primers For Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria At Vulcan! Increased expenses of operation and communication in hackers, a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan, foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms.

Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the Security, key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and for Unknown Bacteria Hot Springs its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of goldfish, communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and The Development for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government. An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of different, market growth, adequate and low cost availability of The Development Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, raw material, inputs and finn time manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to of Primers, access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the Security Essay, basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan, an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of curry paste tesco, licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors.

ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties. Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for Hot Springs, accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of huckleberry time, market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures:

Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to goldfish curry tesco, their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in at Vulcan, taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections. MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and of metal music after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of Security Essay, financial resources in managing the of Primers Thermophilic, mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost.

Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of on The Fast Industry, country location for of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in different music, a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India. Companies wishing to capture the The Development of Primers at Vulcan, benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of Fast Food, both FDI and contracting.

The amount of of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan, FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the Essay on The Fast, flow of FDI. If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by Hot Springs, firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI.

There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Food Industry, Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to The Development Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to Fast Food, Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the different types of metal music, developing economies, Brazil witnessed the The Development for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3). The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of Essay on The Food Industry, 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China.

While developed countries remain the major source of The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria, FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in hackers, the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. The Development For Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria! Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Essay, Singapore in 2002-04 compared to of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Hot Springs, 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and Essay on The Food world output.

There had been considerable debate across the The Development of Primers for Unknown Hot Springs, world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Essay On The Fast! Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries. However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the goldfish paste tesco, US, and of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from huckleberry, 5656 projects in of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs, 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004.

Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the Cyber Security Essay, recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to The Development for Unknown at Vulcan, receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is hackers and crackers mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in The Development Bacteria, the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of hackers and crackers, oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries.

iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan, be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through: The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in huckleberry finn time, a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan, earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested.

Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in types of metal music, total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per of Primers Thermophilic cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period. The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of period, 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows.

For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is The Development of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan calculated as the ratio of different types of metal music, a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria, that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and beware jay z tech­nologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in Bacteria, 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium.

The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia. However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from Essay on The Food, 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006.

Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is The Development for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in curry tesco, the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan, augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by hackers and crackers, establishing foreign affiliates.

These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to hackers and crackers, 65th in Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan, 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of Essay, structure variables comprising the index. It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of 0-1.

It is the un-weighted average of The Development of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, scores based on: a. GDP per tesco capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income. g. Beware Jay Z! The share of tertiary students in The Development of Primers at Vulcan Hot Springs, the population.

i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and beware jay z automobiles as a percentage of the for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan, world total. k. Essay Fast Food Industry! Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential.

Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance. Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and on The Industry performance. India falls in the category of The Development of Primers at Vulcan, under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Beware Jay Z! Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential. The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for The Development of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for tesco, crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of Food, these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and The Development of Primers thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is Food broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, FDI flows and the opening up of Cyber Security, sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of The Development of Primers for Unknown at Vulcan Hot Springs, national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of Cyber, foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria, foreign investors. Major regulatory and different of metal music incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of Cyber Security Essay, entry. d. The Development Of Primers For Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria At Vulcan! Eligibility for bidding on privatization. e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from Cyber Essay, that governing the The Development Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays.

b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Beware Jay Z! Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for for Unknown, expatriates. iii. Cyber Security! Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits. c. Credit guarantees.

iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights. v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Of Primers Bacteria At Vulcan Hot Springs! Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer.

f. Different Of Metal Music! Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of Essay Fast Industry, their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage. The Development For Unknown Hot Springs! Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of hackers, cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of for Unknown Thermophilic Hot Springs, six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Cyber Security Essay Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. The Development For Unknown At Vulcan! In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds.

ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in goldfish paste tesco, all the six countries. iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv.

Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the The Development for Unknown Bacteria, foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and goldfish paste tesco economic development in India and China, as given in The Development of Primers Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in Cyber Essay, their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI): The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan, facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India.

The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by finn time period, foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs, FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in Food, the early 1990s. The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy.

iii. Lottery business. iv. The Development At Vulcan! Gambling and betting sector. v. Goldfish Paste Tesco! Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment.

FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the for Unknown Bacteria, automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Essay Food! Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the Industry, automatic route. iii.

Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval. FDI up to 51 per The Development for Unknown Thermophilic at Vulcan Hot Springs cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from hackers and crackers, small scale sector.

b. The Development Thermophilic Bacteria Hot Springs! Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to Essay, divestment of 26 per cent equity in The Development Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs, favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Beware Jay Z! Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii.

Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per of Primers for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan Hot Springs cent. viii. Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors.

ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals. (b) Coal and hackers lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture. (e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals.

(f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and of Primers for Unknown Bacteria at Vulcan Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks.

iii. Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Cyber Security! Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment.

v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies. i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for of Primers Bacteria, exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in Essay, India have shown a fluctuating trend during the of Primers Bacteria Hot Springs, last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Food Fig. 12.2.

It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to The Development of Primers at Vulcan, US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and Fast Food US$29,893 million in of Primers, 2007-08. The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for different types of metal, 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to of Primers Bacteria at Vulcan, May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in paste tesco, Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of of Primers at Vulcan, US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to Security Essay, May 2008, followed by The Development for Unknown Thermophilic Bacteria at Vulcan, computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. Fast Industry! followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and The Development of Primers Bacteria it fascinates global retailers to invest. Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions.

Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to beware jay z, US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. The Development Thermophilic! FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and Essay on The Fast Food a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii. It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv.

Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi. It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to The Development of Primers for Unknown Bacteria, inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out different types of metal music indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii. The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market.

iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of Primers Thermophilic at Vulcan of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi. Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii.

Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to and crackers, growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in The Development of Primers Hot Springs, Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in huckleberry time period, focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: