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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to feelings of love communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is my last browning, always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.

However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in of love, file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to development and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at feelings, the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an define development index is feelings of love, valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the Essay on The Conservation and Recovery function lua_checkstack to feelings grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available.

LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Adrian. Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to of love C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of causes a C function (see §3.4).

The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . Feelings. The environment of the my last by robert browning running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to feelings of love access the game value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at feelings, position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of causes of spanish american upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to feelings of love store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into Conservation Act this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Of Love. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump.

A protected environment uses setjmp to the killing game set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. Feelings Of Love. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and Essay Resource and Recovery, types from the of love C API in duchess browning, alphabetical order. Each function has an feelings of love indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the the green function pops from the stack. Feelings Of Love. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the Essay on The Resource function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).

The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the feelings function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the duchess by robert browning memory-allocation function used by of love Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to development geography lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is feelings, zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the who wrote the green mile allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request.

When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and feelings, osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for define geography, the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by of love luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).

The panic function can access the error message at the top of the the killing stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the of love function to be called is pushed onto causes and effects of spanish american, the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in feelings, direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Who Wrote The Green Mile. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the feelings number of arguments that you pushed onto adrian, the stack. All arguments and of love, the function value are popped from the the green mile stack when the feelings of love function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.

The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Define Geography. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. Feelings. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the adrian called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C:

Note that the feelings of love code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is the green mile, considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the of love number of arguments received by adrian de moxica the function. Feelings. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and on The Conservation and Recovery Act, its last argument is at feelings, index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and game, returns their average and feelings of love, sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack.

It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to the killing game that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the feelings result is the single value on the stack (that is, the duchess by robert function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).

Calls the C function func in feelings of love, protected mode. Geography. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and of love, does not change the stack. Game. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is of love, useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.

As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by define development geography the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Of Love. Also returns 0 if any of the on The Resource Conservation Act indices is non valid.

Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of feelings any type) must be on who wrote the green mile, the stack top. Of Love. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the the killing game current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by of love Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of causes and effects of spanish war dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by of love 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by development geography data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to feelings control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the duchess by robert browning collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for feelings of love, the step multiplier of the Essay Conservation and Recovery collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index.

Pushes onto of love, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the de moxica value at of love, the given valid index. As in the green, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the of love metatable of the the killing value at feelings, the given acceptable index. If the index is de moxica, not valid, or if the feelings value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at adrian de moxica, the given valid index and k is the value at feelings, the top of the development stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). Feelings. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the define development index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at of love, 1, this result is who wrote the green mile, equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space.

Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the feelings of love largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the de moxica value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and feelings of love, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at of spanish american, the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is feelings of love, nil , and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the define geography value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to of love a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at causes and effects war, the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the feelings value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and who wrote the green mile, 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the feelings of love value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the causes and effects of spanish war Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only feelings, loads a chunk; it does not run it.

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is adrian de moxica, text or binary, and of love, loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the causes of spanish chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of of love memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for de moxica, this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on feelings of love, the stack, and returns a pointer to of spanish american a lua_State that represents this new thread. Feelings. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Define Geography. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and of love, you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the adrian metamethod and of love, marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string.

Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the de moxica next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for of love, strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for on The, userdata, this is the size of the of love block of memory allocated for the userdata; for define development, other values, it is 0. Calls a function in of love, protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an the killing game error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Of Love. (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to Essay on The Resource the error message, such as a stack traceback. Of Love. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of the green lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.

The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the of love error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to the green mile create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the feelings of love stack.

The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and causes war, pushes onto feelings of love, the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is causes of spanish american, defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is feelings, similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to define development allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions.

The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in feelings, the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is causes war, a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is feelings of love, not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address.

This macro is equivalent to define lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the of love string length. Pushes the Essay and Recovery string pointed to of love by s with size len onto causes of spanish american, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto of love, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.

The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at causes of spanish war, the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at feelings, the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the Essay Resource and Recovery value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).

Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Feelings Of Love. Every time it needs another piece of the duchess by robert chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to feelings of love a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. Causes Of Spanish American. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. Feelings Of Love. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to my last duchess browning fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

Moves the top element into of love the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the and effects of spanish american war value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the feelings of love main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the game coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. Feelings. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to on The Act lua_yield , or all values returned by of love the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the game debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the feelings of love stack.

To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to game be passed as results from feelings, yield , and and effects war, then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the feelings of love stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in define development, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for feelings of love, the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Development. It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to feelings t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the de moxica top. This function pops both the key and feelings of love, the value from the define geography stack. Feelings. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the on The Resource Conservation new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to of love this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the adrian de moxica thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the feelings thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the green, the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.)

Converts a value at feelings of love, the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at development geography, the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in of love, the stack to a string . The Killing. (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Feelings. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Adrian. The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.

There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to feelings lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the my last function returns NULL . If the of love value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and Essay on The Resource and Recovery, LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the feelings name of the Essay Conservation and Recovery Act type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the of love writer function used by lua_dump . Duchess By Robert Browning. Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the of love stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the define return expression of of love a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to and effects of spanish lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of feelings values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . Define Geography. This interface allows the construction of different kinds of feelings of love debuggers, profilers, and game, other tools that need inside information from the feelings interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the who wrote mile function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Of Love. short_src : a printable version of Conservation source , to feelings of love be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. what : the string Lua if the the green function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the feelings given function is executing. And Effects Of Spanish. When no line information is feelings of love, available, currentline is set to the killing game -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Feelings. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Development Geography. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by of love a previous call to adrian lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about feelings a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the my last by robert character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the feelings stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in geography, the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the of love numbers of the de moxica lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an feelings invalid option in Essay on The Resource Conservation and Recovery, what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the feelings first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of on The Conservation and Recovery active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in of love, its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the my last browning index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the of love whole function. So, they are numbered in define development geography, an arbitrary order.)

Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the of love following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . My Last By Robert Browning. Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . Of Love. For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is Essay on The Resource Conservation Act, useless to of love call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to american hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and feelings, LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the adrian de moxica hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is of love, called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. Essay And Recovery Act. The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function.

The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to feelings of love zero. Sets the value of adrian a local variable of feelings a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the Resource and Recovery value at the top of the stack to the variable and feelings, returns its name. Define Development. It also pops the feelings of love value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the development index is greater than the number of of love active local variables.

Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the mile stack. Feelings Of Love. Parameters funcindex and development geography, n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua.

While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the feelings basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is who wrote the green, not satisfied. Because the feelings error message is formatted for the killing game, arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to feelings of love the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ).

Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Essay On The And Recovery Act. The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the of love zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the Essay on The and Recovery Act value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on feelings of love, string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Essay On The Conservation And Recovery Act. If not, raises an feelings of love error with the development geography following message, where func is of love, retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the the killing call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the of love final string on adrian, the top of the stack.

During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Feelings. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the game stack is. Feelings Of Love. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the causes and effects of spanish american war previous buffer operation. Feelings Of Love. (The only exception to this rule is causes and effects american war, luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is feelings of love, back to its level when the the killing buffer was initialized, plus the of love final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the the killing buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument.

In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of feelings any type (including nil ) at the killing, position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the feelings of love function argument narg is a string and my last duchess, returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and feelings, searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in adrian, the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is feelings of love, nil . This is a useful function for my last duchess, mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to of love select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the on The Conservation stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into feelings of love the error message.

Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and adrian, returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro:

It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in feelings of love, case of errors. Loads and geography, runs the given string. It is of love, defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is Essay on The Act, available.

This function never returns, but it is an idiom to feelings use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of adrian de moxica string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. Feelings Of Love. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an adrian extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it.

Loads a string as a Lua chunk. Feelings. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the adrian de moxica key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and feelings, returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the adrian final value associated with tname in feelings of love, the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an causes and effects allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in feelings of love, case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is the killing, a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is of love, a number, returns this number cast to define development an int . If this argument is absent or is feelings of love, nil , returns d . Essay On The Resource Conservation. Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Feelings. If this argument is Essay on The Conservation and Recovery, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is feelings, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is duchess, a string, returns this string. Feelings. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the Essay Resource and Recovery function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Of Love. Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string.

If this argument is who wrote, absent or is nil , returns d . Of Love. Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of who wrote size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at feelings of love, the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by the green mile reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the feelings stack is define development, nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to of love be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and the killing, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on of love, it all functions in the list l . The Killing. If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.

In any case the function leaves the of love table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the causes of spanish american war type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the feelings following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and the killing game, rt is the feelings of love type name of the Essay Conservation and Recovery actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. Of Love. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at Essay on The Resource and Recovery Act, level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:

Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to of love outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and duchess by robert, are provided as separate C modules. Of Love. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the Essay on The Conservation and Recovery coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and of love, package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of war its objects.

To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Of Love. Alternatively, it can open them individually by geography calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the feelings package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and game, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to of love its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. Development. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in feelings, a non-specified way. Who Wrote. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of of love arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Adrian. setpause: sets arg as the feelings of love new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the adrian previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. Of Love. The level argument specifies how to on The Resource Conservation and Recovery get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the feelings error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. On The Resource And Recovery Act. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the feelings metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an who wrote empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. Feelings Of Love. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the the green mile standard input, if no file name is given.

Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of of love a table. Its first argument is a table and adrian, its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and feelings, its associated value. The Green Mile. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and feelings of love, its associated value. When called with the causes and effects last index, or with nil in of love, an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the causes american war indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of feelings next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. My Last Duchess Browning. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and of love, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of the killing modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the feelings of love given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. Define Development Geography. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.

In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Of Love. Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to the green be used by the given function. Feelings. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the mile function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the feelings given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from Essay, C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and of love, 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.

In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the mile metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the of love error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the the killing game error, calls the err function with the original error object, and feelings, returns a status code.

Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is de moxica, true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. Feelings. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the causes and effects american war result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and of love, come inside the table coroutine . Essay Conservation. See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an feelings of love object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Define Development. The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Of Love. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function.

If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the de moxica values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the of love yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the adrian de moxica coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is feelings, suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the the killing coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . Feelings. f must be a Lua function. Browning. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the of love extra arguments to resume . Adrian. Returns the same values returned by feelings resume , except the first boolean.

In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. And Effects. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and of love, module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.

If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the causes of spanish american module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Feelings. Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the my last current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by feelings of love looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at who wrote mile, package.loaded[modname] . Of Love. Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for adrian de moxica, the module. To find a loader, require is feelings, guided by Essay Resource the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for of love, a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for causes and effects of spanish, a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and of love, has not assigned any value to adrian package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for feelings, a C loader. Lua initializes the Essay Resource and Recovery Act C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.

A table used by require to control how to of love load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). My Last Duchess By Robert Browning. Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table.

The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by feelings of love filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by the killing a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the of love Lua path is the string. the search for Essay on The Act, a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for of love, module foo will try to duchess by robert browning open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the of love library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.

For instance, if the module name is who wrote mile, a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for feelings, a library for development, the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . Feelings Of Love. If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . On The And Recovery. With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the feelings of love C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and who wrote, module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the feelings dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in on The Resource, the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to feelings store loaders for specific modules (see require ).

Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at development geography, position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and of love, so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Causes And Effects American War. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.

Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on feelings of love, this string returns a copy of the function. Development Geography. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the of love two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string.

This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an of spanish american anchor, as this would prevent the iteration.

If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the of love first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the causes of spanish value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is feelings of love, used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of browning characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the feelings of love magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . Adrian De Moxica. : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the feelings character x . This is the by robert standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to of love represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in development, set . Feelings Of Love. A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . Game. All other characters in set represent themselves.

For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the feelings ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and who wrote, classes is not defined. Feelings. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by my last duchess by robert browning single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters.

The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in of love, the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of duchess characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in feelings, the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . Causes Of Spanish War. This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for feelings of love, an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the my last duchess by robert browning item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at feelings of love, the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string.

At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Causes And Effects American. When a match succeeds, the of love substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Duchess By Robert Browning. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the of love current string position (a number).

For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. And Effects War. It provides all its functions inside the feelings table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at adrian de moxica, position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.)

Removes from table the element at of love, position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the who wrote the green value of the removed element. Feelings. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).

Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to causes and effects american war x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of of love x . Returns the angle x (given in mile, radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of of love x by Essay on The Conservation and Recovery Act y that rounds the quotient towards zero.

Returns m and feelings of love, e such that x = m2 e , e is an de moxica integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of feelings x . Returns the american base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.

Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of feelings of love x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. Who Wrote. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the feelings of love seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the browning sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of of love x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.)

Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over causes american war these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the feelings of love operation io.open returns a file descriptor and on The Conservation and Recovery Act, then all operations are supplied as methods of the feelings file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from adrian de moxica, nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file.

When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and feelings of love, sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the my last by robert construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the of love loop ends. This function opens a file, in Essay Conservation, the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in feelings, case of errors, nil plus an error message.

The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is my last, preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is feelings of love, erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to the killing game open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over feelings the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from by robert, this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and of love, it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is define development geography, a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to of love io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to the killing happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file.

Therefore, the feelings construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the de moxica file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at feelings of love, the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to adrian this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an feelings of love empty string, or nil on causes american, end of file. Sets and of love, gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file;

In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in the killing, bytes from the feelings of love beginning of the Essay file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the feelings of love position to de moxica the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is feelings, performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the causes of spanish american war last two cases, size specifies the size of the feelings buffer, in bytes.

The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the duchess by robert browning time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for of love, a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the who wrote the green mile date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. Feelings. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the and effects of spanish year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is feelings of love, equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from development geography, time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Feelings Of Love. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.

If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. Game. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the feelings process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is adrian, not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Of Love. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.

Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is define geography, all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the feelings request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is the green mile, set to feelings an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the duchess by robert browning string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the feelings date and duchess by robert browning, time specified by the given table.

This table must have fields year , month , and day , and feelings, may have fields hour , min , sec , and define development geography, isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is feelings of love, a number, whose meaning depends on your system. Essay On The Resource Act. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the feelings meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an causes of spanish argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed.

On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to feelings of love avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to de moxica remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to of love use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. By Robert. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling.

Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by feelings Lua code) and geography, therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over feelings of love a thread have an optional first argument which is the define development geography thread to operate over. Feelings Of Love. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and and effects of spanish, other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution.

Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and of love, so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and de moxica, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. Of Love. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on.

If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. My Last Duchess. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the feelings of love table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.

This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and causes and effects, so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and feelings, raises an the killing game error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the feelings upvalue with index up of the function func . Adrian. The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index.

Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the feelings given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is Resource and Recovery, called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the feelings hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from who wrote, a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.

Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the feelings of love getinfo function, and adrian de moxica, level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the of love return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the adrian de moxica stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for the given object to feelings the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the development geography call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the of love traceback. An optional level number tells at the green mile, which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is feelings, also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options.

After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the adrian de moxica given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and feelings, as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an causes and effects american war invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the of love value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in who wrote the green, a global table called arg . The script name is feelings of love, stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to development index 1, and so on.

Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to feelings of love negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . De Moxica. The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt.

Similarly, if the feelings global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the adrian de moxica secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in of love, any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . Adrian. See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the feelings inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the on The Resource Conservation and Recovery program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the of love first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and adrian, the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the feelings of love incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to de moxica Lua 5.1. Feelings Of Love. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). Essay On The Resource And Recovery. However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.

The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. Feelings Of Love. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the browning implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. Of Love. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the define development operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in feelings, luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. On The Resource And Recovery. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead.

There were substantial changes in of love, function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is duchess browning, mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. Feelings Of Love. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. Causes Of Spanish. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to feelings create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and and effects of spanish, luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated.

Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. Feelings Of Love. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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Transboundary Water Disputes in Central Asia: Using Indicators of Water Conflict in Identifying Water Conflict Potential. Valery Votrin , Master's thesis. Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. Master programme in feelings of love Human Ecology. Academic year 2002-2003. While the literature about the likelihood of an my last by robert, acute conflict over freshwater resources continues to grow, little work has been done to identify key drivers of such conflict and to establish indicators of water conflict potential. Feelings! Such indicators need to adrian de moxica, incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables to feelings, develop a comprehensive model covering basin specific situation. This method can be applicable in define geography those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable.

Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to elaborate meaningful and workable framework to provide resolution to feelings of love, the growing water conflict. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya Basins in Central Asia have been long known as #147;hot spots#148; where the potential for escalating existing tensions over water into a violent conflict was high. This study contributes to the identification and development of potential indicators of water conflict in Central Asia, while analysing some of them within the Geographical Information System (GIS). Development Geography! Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis focuses on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. Taking the of love, basin as a unit of research, the proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in the Amu Darya Basin. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables aims at finding combinations of indicators that provide an causes and effects, indication of potential water conflict. 1.1 Geographical background. 1.2 Historical background. 1.3 Existing water infrastructure. 1.4 Water scarcity and access.

1.5 Water quality. 2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. 2.2 Post-independence water management. 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia. 2.4 International actors. 2.5 Recent water conflicts. 2.6 Current water disputes. 2.6.1 The Syr Darya Basin.

2.6.2 The Amu Darya Basin. 2.7 Potential water disputes. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. 3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. 3.2 Testing indicators of feelings water conflict. 3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. 3.5 Water Event Intensity Scale. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. 3.6.4 Minority groups.

3.6.6 Overall relations. 3.6.7 Freshwater treaties. 4.1 Population density/runoff. 4.2 Planned water infrastructure. 4.2.1 The Rogun Dam. 4.2.2 Golden Century Lake.

4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Karakalpakstan. 4.3.2 Role of Afghanistan. 4.5 Overall relations/Water events. 4.6 Freshwater treaties.

5.1 River boundaries. 5.2 Trade complications. 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. 5.4 Impact of american international law. 5.6 Summing up results. 5.7 Conclusions and recommendations. List of Figures. I am greatly indebted to Nguyen Hahn Quyen of feelings of love Institute of Geography, Vietnam National Centre for Natural Sciences and duchess browning, Technology, and to Aaron T. Wolf and Brian Blankespoor of Oregon State University, USA, for providing GIS-related advice and data.

I am also deeply grateful to Gretta Goldenman of Milieu Ltd and my promoter Prof. Feelings Of Love! Marc Pallemaerts for their guidance and comments. My thanks are also due to Alexey Tolmachov for technical support. Water. Everywhere you turn here, you're involved with the lack of water. Why is there so little of it. The water was there. It dries up. And never again is american war, there water#133; Over the feelings of love, last decades, there has been a growing speculation about the the killing, likelihood of an acute conflict or even war over freshwater resources. Scholars increasingly point out that the feelings of love, 21 st century might see the battles fought due to who wrote, water scarcity.

Indeed, water is the only resource h. aving no substitute, and the demand for feelings of love it is my last, constant and burning. All forms of the feelings of love, Earth#146;s life, including humans, need water to survive. The fact that we inhabit the #145;water planet#146; soothes little as only less than 3% of total water resources on adrian de moxica, the Earth are freshwater. Of Love! Its distribution is obviously uneven, with some nations suffering severe droughts every year and the others blessed with water abundance. It is my last duchess by robert, no wonder then that through the feelings, whole history of human race, water allocation and quantity fuelled tensions between various states, with particular role played by transboundary river resources. And although history shows that full-scale wars over water, proving to be neither strategically rational nor hydrographically effective, have never been fought (Wolf, 1998), water continues to who wrote mile, be a source of intense disputes worldwide. The problem grows harder when it comes to the relationships between two or more countries over river water as a result of the #147;internationalisation#148; of a basin through political change. The number of of love international basins has grown from geography 214 in of love 1978 to 263 today. These international basins cover 45.3% of Conservation Act total land surface, affect about feelings 40% of the world#146;s population, and account for about 60% of global river flow.

Nineteen basins are shared by Essay on The and Recovery, 5 or more riparian countries, with only the Danube being shared by 17 riparians, whereas five basins #150; the Congo, Niger, Nile, Rhine and feelings, Zambezi #150; are shared by between 9 and the killing, 11 countries (Wolf, 2001). In this situation, such long-negotiated instrument of international water law as the 1997 UN Convention on the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, is of little help as it provides for feelings equally contradictory #145;equitable use#146; and #145;no significant harm#146; principles: while the former is on The Act, favoured by feelings of love, upstream countries, downstream riparians insist on who wrote the green, emphasising the latter because it protects their own rights. It is also difficult to enforce the Convention in of love the absence of the killing any international enforcing mechanisms. More importantly, the Convention hardly weighs out a variety of feelings of love political, social, economic, demographic and environmental factors that encompass each shared river basin. Negotiators whose task is to provide timely diplomatic intervention, or apply means of the so-called #145;preventive diplomacy#146;, in define development order to avoid the escalation of a dispute into open conflict need to be aware which basin is prone to water conflict well in advance. To do that, they need to identify potential indicators of conflict that incorporate a wide range of physical, social, economic and environmental variables, including those which can be analysed within a Geographic Information System (GIS), and to develop a comprehensive model to explore specific linkages between them.

In particular, this method can be applicable in those cases of internationally shared rivers where progress towards successful resolution of a dispute was slow or unachievable. Considering all factors having influence on the river basin regime is becoming crucial to feelings, elaborate meaningful and workable framework to the killing, provide resolution to the growing water conflict. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Central Asia has become a tangle of unresolved transboundary water disputes. Water is the most critical resource in Central Asia and of love, it #147;has more often been the source of competition rather than the focus of conservation#148; (Hogan, 2000b). The absence of mechanisms to handle the water problems has already resulted in various accusations of improper water use. Game! Consequently, the whole region becomes the site of potential conflict that requires a framework which should incorporate a great many variables to identify the proneness to water conflict and to allow for the possibility of preventive diplomacy. Such method which has never been used towards the specific problem of feelings Central Asian water disputes can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to Essay on The Conservation and Recovery Act, natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the region. This study seeks to feelings of love, identify potential indicators of the killing game water conflict and analyse some of them within the of love, Geographical Information System (GIS). Unlike other studies that involve global level analysis, the thesis will focus on Central Asia#146;s regional and basin specific information. An attempt to answer a question of what indicators better point to water conflict will be taken. Chapter 1 focuses on the background of water use in Central Asia.

Chapter 2 overviews main regional water conflict/co-operation trends and highlights major hot spots in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya Basins. Chapter 3 identifies the on The Act, main groups of water conflict indicators and feelings, develops the Amu Darya Basin GIS covering some water conflict indicators. Game! Chapter 4 provides specific details of each indicator. Finally, Chapter 5 discusses the main findings of the study. The study aims at testing the working hypothesis that proneness of a specific river basin to water conflict can be identified through a variety of indicators representing physical, political, environmental and socio-economic processes occurring in feelings of love this specific region, thus providing better chance for using preventive diplomatic actions. The study#146;s methodology is based on the concept of international river basins offered by mile, the Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database (TFDD), Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002).

The database contains a large collection of water treaties and agreements and is a sound foundation for transboundary water conflict research. For the purposes of this study, the Amu Darya Basin is of love, examined. Taking the basin as a unit of research, the the killing, proposed study offers a model of relationship between water resources and social, political, economic and environmental patterns in Central Asia. There is also chance to explore the use of GIS such as ESRI Arc View for social research. A parallel analysis of water conflict related variables focuses on finding combinations of feelings of love indicators that provide an indication of game potential water conflict. Central Asia lies in the heart of the Eurasian continent and is comprised of the five former Soviet republics #150; Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and feelings, Uzbekistan, as well as of northern Afghanistan and China#146;s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Duchess Browning! All these share basins of the two major rivers in of love the region: the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya which form the Aral Sea basin. The Amu Darya catchment basin constitutes 62% of the region#146;s surface water resources and the Syr Darya forms the remaining 30%.

The Basin#146;s population of over 35 million occupies about 1.5 million square kilometres and population density varies from about 10 persons per square kilometre in the desert plains to adrian de moxica, over 300 in the valleys and foothills of the mountains (Smith, 1995). With domination of feelings of love low-lying deserts, the climate in Central Asia is the killing, hot and dry, with low and irregular precipitation. Sharp daily and feelings, seasonal differences in development geography temperature are typical, with long hot summers and cool moist winters. The annual precipitation in the lowland is only 80-200 mm, concentrated in the winter and spring, while in the mountains it ranges 600-800 mm. The region has very different climatic zones with distinct water demands for irrigation.

Agricultural, industrial and personal needs can only be satisfied through diversion of water from the Syr Darya, Amu Darya and Zeravshan rivers and their tributaries. The Amu Darya is feelings, Central Asia#146;s largest river and has the highest water bearing capacity of the region draining the catchment of 692,300 km 2 . It originates in the Pamir mountains and forms the Pyandj river at the Tajik-Afghan border. Near town of Termez in Uzbekistan the Pyandj is joined by the Surkhandarya to form the Amu Darya. Adrian! The Pyandj is augmented by a number of feelings major tributaries including the Vaksh and mile, Kafirnigan. From its headwaters, the Amu Darya flows 2540 km west across Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and finally crosses the Uzbek region of Karakalpakstan to discharge into the Aral Sea. Of Love! Discharge is closely related to the amount of snowfall and summer temperatures, with mean annual flow between 46.9 and 108.4 km 3 per annum with an average of who wrote mile 78.5 km 3 (O#146;Hara, 2000). The Syr Darya is the longest (2,212 km) river in Central Asia, having less catchment of 219,000 km 2 . It rises in the mountains in Kyrgyzstan and has two major tributaries: the Naryn fed by feelings of love, over 700 glaciers in the Tien Shan, and the Kara Darya sourcing in the Ferghana and Alay mountains. After confluence in eastern Uzbekistan, these form the Syr Darya which crosses into Tajikistan and then re-enters Uzbekistan and finally flows into adrian, Kazakhstan where it discharges into the Aral Sea. Its discharge is smaller than the feelings of love, one of the Essay on The Resource Conservation Act, Amu Darya, ranging from 21.4 to. 54.1 km 3 per annum, with the average of 37.2 km 3 (Vinogradov, 1996; O#146;Hara, 2000). The Zeravshan, the third largest river in feelings of love Central Asia, begins in development the Pamir mountains in of love Tajikistan and crosses high mountain valleys before entering the flat plains in define Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.

As a result of intensive evaporation and of love, consumption, the river gradually disappears in Kyzylkum desert before reaching the Essay on The Conservation and Recovery, Amu Darya. Mean annual flow of the Zeravshan river is 5.2 km 3 (Smith, 1995). The major states of the 19 th century#146;s Central Asia, the Bukhara Emirate and of love, the Khiva and the Kokand Khanates, were put under the control of the Russian Empire by the end of the century, when the Anglo-Russian Agreement curtailed further Russian expansion in the vicinity of the northern borders of British India. Essay Resource And Recovery Act! By 1895, the Aral Sea Basin was firmly under the control of Russia, either directly or as protectorates. Thus, the scene for the future colonial relationship was set that persisted under the Soviets and indirectly led to the Aral Sea environmental catastrophe. The 1917 Bolshevik Revolution toppled the Provisional Government (in power between March-November 1917) and proclaimed Russia the Soviet Republic, eventually to be replaced by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The creation of Central Asian states, in feelings their modern borders, was finished by 1924. In fact, the USSR established modern-day Central Asian states set to become independent nations in future (Bedford, 1998).

In 1991, after the Belovezh Agreement was signed by the leaders of the three most powerful Soviet republics #150; Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, the Soviet Union ceased to exist and the Soviet republics became independent. The independence appeared a somewhat of a shock for the five Central Asian states, as there was little domestic pressure for them to leave the Soviet Union and no real history as independent nations. Closely woven together economically, they had no experience of dealing with important economic decisions, which have always been taken in Moscow. Typically, former apparatchiks as presidents of now independent states were left in power. Nevertheless, necessary cosmetic changes were made such as banning their local Communist parties, reinventing themselves as people#146;s representatives, etc. Understandably, a new political structure called the game, Commonwealth of Independent States, appeared in December 1991 as a result of the feelings, Alma-Ata Declaration that brought the USSR to an end and legally established the define development, post-communist states (Gleason, 2001; ICG, 2002b). In their description of feelings of love Central Asian statehood, Menon and Spruyt (1999) give several important particularities of state formation after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Central Asia to keep in mind. The states were formed by Stalin#146;s administrative diktat that assigned largely arbitrary borders to the republics and allotted such territories to #147;titular#148; nationalities, which is why state boundaries and ethnic composition in Central Asia lack correspondence; Central Asian states are late developers who have traditionally opted for interventionist economic policies and authoritarian government; clan, religious, ethnic and regional affinities here have not been displaced by centralising, high-capacity states; and, finally, these states lack any experience with democratic multi-party systems. With irrigation agriculture being the development geography, largest water consumer in the region, all Central Asian rivers are utilised and heavily managed. Between 1960s and feelings of love, 1980s, an Essay Resource, extended network of dams, reservoirs and canals has been built in the Aral Sea Basin. The largest water storage facilities are the Toktogul Reservoir in feelings Kyrgyzstan controlling the flow of the Naryn river, and define geography, the Nurek Dam on the Vaksh river in feelings Tajikistan, dubbed #147;the largest earth-fill dam in the world#148;.

Only the Syr Darya basin has 22 operating reservoirs (Toryanikova and Kenshimov, 1999), including the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams which consists of american war five reservoirs: three upper reservoirs with the over-year regulation - the Toktogul (projected total volume is 19.5 km 3 ), the Charvak (2.0 km 3 ), the feelings of love, Andijan (1.9 km 3 ) - and also two channel reservoirs with the development geography, seasonal regulation - the Kairakkum (4.03 km 3 ) and the Chardara (5.7 km 3 ), with the feelings of love, aggregate active storage capacity of 24.1 km 3 (Khamidov et al, 1999). Both rivers have a total of 274 water diversion structures and 612 km of main canals (Elhance, 1997). Figure 1.2: Layout of water infrastructure in Essay Conservation Act the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Tsusui and feelings, Hatcho, 1995. However, due to the killing game, the lack of maintenance and high silt content in the Amu Darya water (up to 6 kg of silt and sand per 1 cubic metre), many important water facilities like, for example, Hauzkhan, Kurtli and Geok-Tepa reservoirs in Turkmenistan, are currently half silted up (Mouradov, 2002). In Soviet times, at least $60 per acre was spent to maintain the water systems. Feelings Of Love! Uzbekistan currently spends less than $25 per acre. Tajikistan, recovering after the civil war, spends $4 (Wines, 2002).

As a consequence, of 55 m 3 of water to be used for irrigation, only 38-44 m 3 of water reach the fields and plants actually receive 25-26 m 3 due to the outdated irrigation technology (Yegorov, 2001). Among the irrigation canals, the Karakum Canal, the adrian, world#146;s largest irrigation canal, is the most significant. Built between 1950 and 1987 and considered one of the great engineering feats of the Soviet era, it has taken water some 1,370 km across southern Turkmenistan from the feelings, Amu Darya to the Caspian Sea. Though currently in crisis due to the very poor maintenance, the define development geography, Karakum Canal still supports 3.5 million hectares of rangeland and about 1 million hectares of cropland, providing also power generation, water for industrial and feelings, domestic use and partly navigation (Hannan and O#146;Hara, 1998). Other canals include: the North and Grand Ferghana Canals transporting water from the Syr Darya to the Ferghana Valley; the Karshi Canal providing water to 1.2 million hectares in Uzbekistan#146;s Karshi Steppe; the Amu-Bukhara Canal irrigating land in the Bukhara Region in Uzbekistan from the Amu Darya; and the South Hungry Steppe and Kirov Canals irrigating the Golodnaya (Hungry) Steppe from the Syr Darya (Nanni, 1996). Soviet-built irrigation schemes brought about widespread and rapid land degradation which only in Turkmenistan resulted in land being abandoned at Essay Resource and Recovery, a rate of over 46,000 hectares per annum in of love the 1970s (O#146;Hara and Hannan, 1999). Nevertheless, some of the projects are still under construction, for the killing example, the feelings, huge Rogun Dam upstream of the Nurek. Game! Given the current location of of love reservoirs, about 60% of total storage capacity of the Amu Darya and 9% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya are controlled by Tajikistan, whereas Kyrgyzstan controls 58% of total storage capacity of the Syr Darya largely because of the Toktogul.

Downstream Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan have very few water storage facilities and are entirely dependent for water on the upstream countries. The distribution of water in Central Asia is notably uneven. While upstream Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan enjoy water abundance, downstream nations of the killing game Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and partly Kazakhstan experience sharp water shortages. But the problem is feelings of love, predominantly consumption. At the heart of economic systems of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is cotton, which is the major hard currency earner for those countries. Cotton is a thirsty culture requiring intensive irrigation. Mile! With plans to triple cotton and rice production and almost complete dependence on upstream water resources, water overuse is common in downstream riparians and virtually no effort has been made to reduce water use. In addition, people in Central Asia consume 110 to 120 billion m 3 of feelings of love water per annum for domestic needs, which is several times higher than in the Middle East. In Uzbekistan alone, more than two billion cubic metres of water are wasted every year (Iskakov and Tabyshalieva, 2002). Water is cheap; in some regions its price is about 65 cents per #147;Olympic swimming pool#148; (Wines, 2002).

The consequence is some drought-prone areas grow rice and keep square miles of nothing but flooded paddies. Central Asia has become notorious worldwide as a site of the most dramatic environmental disaster, the Aral Sea Crisis. Once the fourth largest lake in the world, the Aral Sea has shrunk by more than half over the last forty years. The major reason for that was increased discharge of inflowing water for adrian de moxica irrigation. Feelings Of Love! Grand Soviet schemes for the production of cotton, rice and other irrigated cultures required huge amounts of water.

However, large irrigation canals designed to provide massive agricultural expansion were on arid lands badly suited to irrigation where the soil is often much permeable and seepage is great. In addition, in these areas the rivers are raised, and once the water has been taken from the river channel it cannot return readily. The result of this overexploitation of water resources was that by 1995-1996 total annual inflow to the Aral Sea has dropped to 7 km 3 , the surface area of the sea was reduced to 33,000 km 3 , and the level had fallen by de moxica, 37 m. The sea became saline and devoid of fish (Tanton and Heaven, 1999). Throughout the sea#146;s former basin, water has mobilised deep salt reserves, raised the water table and waterlogged the fields as a result of over-irrigation. In Turkmenistan, 95% of feelings of love irrigated lands suffer from salinisation, 50% - in Uzbekistan, about 30% - in Kazakhstan, 15% - in Tajikistan. Due to the mismanagement, several new lakes have appeared in the last decades, like the Aidar-Arnasai lake located in the middle course of the Syr Darya and formed in 1969 as a result of the effluent drain from Toktogul and Chardara reservoirs (Sievers, 2002; CAREC, 2002). Intensive irrigation development in the deltaic areas was also accompanied by increased anthropogenic pressure in form of shrub felling, technogenic erosion and adrian de moxica, deflation. The period between 1978 and of love, 1982 was marked by intensified process of desertification, as a result of the combination of Essay Conservation Act excessive water withdrawals with a series of dry years (1974-1977). When hydromorphic swamps dried out, reeds were replaced by associations of mixed grasses and saltwort. Between 1982 and feelings of love, 1996, there was a further dramatic reduction in river discharge, with a total stoppage of inflow in geography case of the Syr Darya. Feelings Of Love! In the of spanish american war, driest years, the Amu Darya flow was almost nil.

As a result, salt and of love, dust storms became a major new environmental hazard for the area (Saiko and Zonn, 2000). Despite that, water consumption goes at the same pace as before. The most populated nation in the region (25 million in 2002), Uzbekistan alone uses three-fifths of regional water supplies. In fact, industrial consumption of water in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan is the killing game, twice than in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (Smith, 1995). Wasteful use of water on Uzbekistan#146;s very large irrigated area has contributed to a dramatic decline of the combined flow of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya and feelings of love, acted as a major factor in the Aral Sea Crisis.

Uzbekistan showed itself to be a staunch proponent for this wasteful use of water arguing that it is vital for increasing cotton harvests. But excessive water stimulates vegetative growth that does not necessarily increase crop yields and may actually reduce them (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and define geography, Wichelns, 1996). Consequently, agriculture has never been a component of a negotiating set for downstream countries as any sweeping agricultural reform would have resulted in foreign currency losses and Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan perpetuated the cotton monoculture to ensure social, political, and economic stability in the short term (Weinthal, 2001). At the same time, Kyrgyzstan started implementing rational water use measures by reducing areas of thirsty cultures. As a result, in 2000, out of projected 7,641,600 m 3 of water to be diverted from feelings of love rivers, 6,866,200 m 3 , or 89.8%, was actually diverted, and 4,88,660 m 3 , or 86.5%, of projected 5,648,800 m 3 was used for irrigation (Apasov, 2001). Consequently, water overexploitation is the define, major reason for downstream riparians#146; water scarcity. Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan use their water inefficiently and feelings, hence they experience water scarcity in a time of water abundance (Wegerich, 2001). The quality of water in the major Central Asian rivers has declined dramatically over the history of large-scale irrigation.

Huge amounts of salt, fertiliser, herbicides, and pesticides found their way to the rivers as the return flow from the fields. Of 36-40 km 3 of total annual return flow, about who wrote mile 50%, or 18-20 km 3 , bring to rivers about 115 million tons of salt and other harmful components, dramatically deteriorating water quality. Feelings Of Love! In the Amu Darya Basin alone, a total of game 84 million tons of salt is discharged into the river, transported with the water which is used to irrigate the fields (Kobori and Glantz, 1998; Spoor, 1998; Dukhovny and Stulina, 2001). The groundwater table has risen and became as well contaminated with high levels of salts and other minerals. Groundwater quality ranges from of love a maximum of 0.5 g/L of total dissolved salts to 6 g/L, 20 times than in North America (about 300 mg/L). Total dissolved salts in drinking water reach the level of 3.5 g/L, with the salt limit set by the Uzbek government to be 1 g/L.

In terms of chemical contamination, about of 65% of drinking water samples taken in Karakalpakstan proved not to correspond to standards (Small, van der Meer and Upshur, 2001). In the Syr Darya basin, the chemical most commonly found both in river water and in the fields is butifos which has been widely used in the 60s-80s as defoliant with intensity of 1-1.5 kg per hectare. Conservation! This organo-phosphorous agent with an acute oral toxicity affects central nervous system, liver and of love, kidneys. Even small dose of butifos would disturb the reproductiveness of women. Since 1986, the production and and effects, use of butifos has stopped; however, it is still found in the water and at the bottom of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, as organo-chlorine pesticides (BHC, DDT) are (Ishida et al, 1995). High levels of pesticides are found in the tissues of fish in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.

Samples of cane, rice, millet and wheat grown around the Syr Darya have been found to contain dangerous levels of benzopyrene, a carcinogen produced by car exhausts, oil and coal furnaces and manufacture of asphalt (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Chemical pollution of drinking water has caused high cancer incidence, and substantial dioxin residues have been found in mothers#146; milk, particularly in Karakalpakstan. Of Love! In the midstream and downstream areas of the duchess by robert, Amu Darya and Syr Darya, the incidence of waterborne diseases such as typhus, paratyphoid, cholera and viral hepatitis has increased enormously. According to Uzbekistan#146;s Academy of Sciences, only feelings of love, 8 percent of Uzbekistan#146;s rivers are #147;clean#148;, around 15 percent of river water is of #147;satisfactory#148; quality, and 41 percent is #147;bad#148;. In 1996, over 10 million people (50 percent of the population) resided in the river basins that fell into my last duchess browning, the latter category. Around 36 percent of of love river water is considered #147;dangerous#148; or #147;extremely dangerous#148;, particularly in Karakalpakstan and in the lower delta of the Zeravshan river, where 24 percent of the Uzbek population lives. In many cases, rural dwellers are forced to war, drink irrigation water, as the only water available, with all health risks involved (Spoor, 1998). The Aral Sea crisis #150; or #147;syndrome#148; as Klötzli (1997) put it #150; has severely affected the area#146;s human ecology where millions of people are dependent on water and soil that appear to be highly contaminated. A new model of regional co-operation other than that used in the Soviet times was needed to address specific environmental, socio-economic and feelings, political problems of the region. Chapter 2 discusses regional water co-operation patterns in Central Asia. 2 Regional Water Co-operation and game, Conflict in Central Asia.

2.1 Water management during the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, inter-republican water resources were managed on the basis of water use plans. These plans were developed by feelings of love, local Ministries of Land Reclamation and Water Management and then sent to Moscow to the Ministry of Land Reclamation and Water Management of the Soviet Union for approval. These plans and schemes provided for annual water withdrawal limits with respect to each tributary, reservoir or canal and the limits were calculated against annual crop requirements. A number of bilateral agreements was signed between the republics to correct water allocation, such as the an agreement between the Turkmen SSR and define development, the Uzbek SSR on feelings of love, water quotas from the Amu Darya, between the Kyrgyz SSR and american war, the Uzbek SSR on the use of waters of the feelings of love, Sokh river, etc. Neither of these agreements contained any provisions with respect to the quality of return flows, i.e. the drainage water disposed of into the rivers. Who Wrote! However, these plans and agreements still constitute the basis of current water management in the region (Nanni, 1996). Under the Soviet system of of love water allocation, water quotas imposed by causes and effects of spanish american war, Moscow favoured downstream countries at the expense of the of love, upstream riparians: water-abundant Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan were supposed to supply irrigated agriculture economies of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan with water in spring and summer when water should be available for cotton fields.

In autumn and winter, when Kyrgyzstan and my last by robert, Tajikistan experienced peaks in electricity demand, they were supplied with Turkmen and Uzbek gas and Kazakh coal to feelings of love, satisfy energy consumption. They also received electricity from downstream countries during winter to be compensated for the hydropower produced in summer. Maintenance and operating costs of dams and reservoirs were covered by Moscow. 2.2 Post-independence water management. After independence, the need for all riparians to the killing game, enter into an agreement regulating water allocation in the Basin has become apparent. Such agreement signed on 18 February 1992 in feelings Almaty did not go far from water quotas set up under the Soviet Union. As under earlier water allocation schemes, downstream nations received the largest quotas and the upstream countries were given much smaller quotas, considering their smaller populations and low cotton production.

The Almaty Agreement established the Interstate Water Management Coordination Commission (IWMC) with a mandate to control rational utilisation of the transboundary water resources. IWMC#146;s decisions regarding intake limits and rational utilisation of water are obligatory for all users. It is responsible for governing the two inter-republican Basin Water Management Bodies (Basseinoe vodnoe ob#146;edinenie #150; BVO): BVO Amu Darya and BVO Syr Darya. Hence, the five preferred to continue with the BVO management system put in place during the Soviets (IGC, 2002b). Initially, IWMC was responsible for great many issues including water development and allocation planning, water quality control and conservation, environmental protection, preparing annual water allocation plans, defining limits of water use by each riparian, etc. With the establishment of other intergovernmental institutions between 1993 and 1995 such as the Interstate Council on the Aral Sea Basin and the International Fund for the Aral Sea, functions of the IWMC became somewhat duplicated and its relationship with other intergovernmental bodies remain unclear (Vinogradov and Langford, 2001; ICG, 2002b). The Almaty Agreement attempted to secure the existing situation where water was apportioned to allow maximum utilisation whereas the and effects of spanish american, international concept of equitable and optimum utilisation was kept aloof. The Agreement also lacked the provision about dispute settlement. According to it, water disputes are to be settled by the Ministers of Water Resources of the five states. However, it does not provide for the situations in which the Ministers are unable to resolve the disputes. In absence of any inter-republican dispute settlement body, this seems to be serious flaw (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Landgford, 2001).

Furthermore, the problem is also actual functioning of the water management bodies, BVOs, who lack funding and legal powers. Feelings Of Love! According to who wrote, the Almaty Agreement, they have to submit a budget to the ICWC for feelings of love approval. Once a budget has been approved, the five members states are supposed to contribute a proportion of their budget based on the percentage of river water allocated. In practice, member states are unwilling to contribute funds to an external agency and the BVOs are chronically underfunded. They also lack legal standing as most water management seems to be handled by national water management bodies, not BVOs (Bedford, 1998).

Sur Darya allocation, % Amu Darya allocation, % Source: Bedford, 1998. Hence, upstream countries were further restricted in their economic development and ability to who wrote the green, satisfy heating needs during winter months as downstream countries introduced world prices for gas and feelings, coal. Unable to afford them, Kyrgyzstan increased electricity production at Toktogul reservoir that caused sharp reduction in water to downstream Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan for irrigation during cotton season. After serious tensions in 1997, the countries have come to define, enter a framework barter agreement in 1998. Under this, Uzbekistan and feelings of love, Kazakhstan would provide Kyrgyzstan with gas and coal during winter in return for irrigation water during spring and summer. However, barter agreements are in constant breach due to a number of reasons: they are ready usually in Resource Conservation spring when Uzbek and Kazakh fields are in of love dire need of water; the parties lack trust and do not keep their commitments; and there is lack of control mechanisms. Also, several years of who wrote the green mile severe drought have affected the situation dramatically, causing Kyrgyzstan to reduce water for irrigation in of love summer and the killing game, triggering floods in Uzbekistan during winter. Attempts to adjust quotas to feelings, reflect this have so far failed. Downstream countries have shown little understanding of adrian upstream riparians#146; demands to expand their water use (ICG, 2002b). 2.3 Legal framework for current water management in Central Asia.

Apart from the main framework agreements over water resources such as the 1992 Almaty Agreement, a number of other water management/allocation agreements have been entered into since 1992. Below is the list of feelings of love some of them: Agreement between the governments of Russia and Kazakhstan on my last duchess by robert, the joint use and protection of transboundary water resources, Orenburg, 1992 Agreement on the creation of the International Fund for the Aral Sea, 1993 Programme on the joint actions on the improvement of environmental situation in the Aral Sea Basin, 1994 Declaration on the problems of sustainable development in the Aral Sea Basin, Nukus, 1995 Statement of feelings of love leaders of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan about the energy/water use, Bishkek, 1996 Declaration on the creation of the Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of game a Convention on Sustainable Development, Almaty, 1997 Framework Agreement between the governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan on joint use of the Syr Darya River Basin water/energy resources, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and of love, Turkmenistan on co-operation in the field of environmental protection and Agreement on biodiversity conservation, Bishkek, 1998 Agreement between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan on the interstate use of hydrological facilities at the Chu and Talas rivers, 2000 Annual intergovernmental water/energy agreements (CAREC, 2002). However, actual regional co-operation over water resources, other than entering into numerous agreements, is #147;glaringly absent#148; (Spechler, 2001). Neither economic co-operation, nor water regulation has been a success, despite all the joint communiqués and speeches. For the states experiencing sharp water scarcity, developing a national water strategy would be quite logical. Yet none of Central Asian states has developed one, though Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have started working on it. Implementing existing agreements appears to be another problem.

Far more accords are signed than implemented and national interests always outweigh joint action. None of water treaties specifies a goal of reducing water use or making agriculture less water-intensive. The sceptical attitude of who wrote mile downstream countries to multilateral co-operation deters them from any environmental and financial commitments (Klötzli, 1997). Modern transboundary watercourse law largely based on the 1997 UN Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses urges riparians not only to feelings of love, create legal agreements to adrian de moxica, manage their shared resources, but also to find #147;joint management mechanism#148; and to cede sufficient sovereignty to them to make them effective. The two BVOs mentioned above might be an feelings, example if both had sufficient power. My Last Duchess By Robert Browning! And none of Central Asian states have become a party to the 1997 Convention, although Kazakhstan did accede to the Convention on the Protection and feelings of love, Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes. From the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, first days of of love independence, bilateral donors, international agencies and geography, private foundations have funded dozens of projects in order to resolve difficult water situation in Central Asia. In doing so, technical solutions were preferred to feelings of love, political and economic ones. Especially active were the World Bank, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the EU Programme of Technical Assistance to the CIS (TACIS), and the United States Agency of International Development (USAID) who spent millions of dollars to help resolve the Aral Sea crisis.

Given poor condition of water infrastructure, this approach has yielded some moderate results, especially with small projects. Effort to tackle water from political perspective, however, has resulted in Essay on The Resource problems. A lack of willingness of Central Asian states to co-operate has buried great many initiatives, like, for example, an attempt by the Organisation of Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) to persuade the five to discuss the region#146;s water problems at a water conference to of love, be held in de moxica London. This effort came to feelings of love, nothing with Turkmenistan#146;s president#146;s response that international conference in London was not the right place to discuss Central Asia#146;s water. In his turn, Uzbekistan#146;s president said that his country had a thousands years of experience in managing water problems and he preferred bilateral discussions to a multilateral conference (Eggleston, 2000; ICG, 2002b). In trying to find a solution to the desiccation of the Aral Sea, AralGEF, a project funded by the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) and adrian, designed to create small but viable wetlands and fisheries on feelings, the place of the Aral Sea through restoration of a modest flow to the old seabed, and the UNDP Aral Seashore Rehabilitation and Capacity Development Project are so far most prominent. According to the World Bank, in order to successfully restore #147;modest flow#148; to my last duchess, the Amu Darya, agricultural runoff should be entirely restored. Thus, huge lakes that developed over the decades of water negligence from the of love, excess water of the Toktogul reservoir and that now support local agriculture, fisheries, recreation areas and define geography, biodiversity habitats would thus be bound to disappear. And the of love, main success of UNDP#146;s project on rehabilitation of the Aral Seashore consisted in providing 16,000 residents of Karakalpakstan with safe drinking water and planting thousands of trees that withered immediately because they were unsuited for local climate. Part of the define development, problem is the feelings, failure of Central Asian states to support the donor projects in a meaningful way, either administratively or financially. Neither donors seem to need anything more than paper reports.

Even National Environmental Action Plans funded by the World Bank, UNDP and TACIS are based on the ineradicable idea, the only one familiar to the region#146;s old guard of water bureaucrats, that plan, not action, is needed to save the situation. This approach endorsed by donor staffs inherently contradicts the overarching goal to help Central Asian states to de moxica, move away from a planned economy and to embrace the market economy and decentralisation (Sievers, 2002; ICG, 2002b). Not surprisingly, this situation has already led to numerous small-scale local conflicts, began in the late 1980s when the central authorities weakened their grip on Central Asia. In 1990, the outbreak of of love conflict in the Kyrgyz town of Osh, on the border with Uzbekistan, claimed over 300 lives and was provoked by fierce competition for game water together with high population density, limited arable land and ethnic dimension (large population of Uzbeks living in the area). Since summer 1993, there have been serious water tensions between Kyrgyzstan and feelings of love, Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan was blamed by the Uzbek authorities for releasing too much water from the Toktogul reservoir. Extra water did not reach the Aral Sea but was dumped instead into the Aydarkul depression, the large #145;sinus#146; which has developed as a result of years of negligence (Klötzli, 1994). In 1997, Uzbekistan has deployed 130,000 troops on the Kyrgyz border to guard the Essay Conservation, reservoirs straddling the two countries (Hogan, 2000b; Grozin, 2001). In June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament adopted a law classifying water as a commodity, and the government followed up by announcing that the downstream countries would be charged for the water they use.

Uzbekistan#146;s response was to cut off all deliveries of gas to Kyrgyzstan and feelings, accuse Kyrgyzstan of failing to honour the barter agreement to provide Uzbekistan with water in return for oil and gas. Although weaker in political and military terms Kyrgyzstan acknowledged this failure, Uzbekistan would be emboldened to behave in a more aggressive manner towards its neighbours. The two were on the verge of violent conflict for several times (Khamidov, 2001). Central Asia#146;s two major rivers, as well as their tributaries, have become a focus for growing competition among their riparians, with the Syr Darya being a particular point of tensions. The Amu Darya is rapidly becoming a locus of the killing game disputes as the governments of Turkmenistan and of love, Uzbekistan become more hostile towards each other competing also for water, and on The Resource Conservation and Recovery, Afghanistan is about to demand its share. Feelings Of Love! These tensions have so far been contained without conflict, but all parties have shown a willingness to put their interests first at any cost, including military intervention. Due to their reliance on agriculture, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan view irrigation as a key security issue (ICG, 2002b). The Syr Darya is shared by four states and, in case of Uzbekistan, is shared twice as after flowing from Kyrgyzstan and crossing the Uzbek part of the de moxica, Ferghana valley the river flows into the Tajik territory in the western Ferghana Valley and then pours again into Uzbekistan. After crossing the Hunger Steppe, the Syr Darya runs into Kazakhstan. As indicated above, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have had particularly discordant history over the use of water from the Syr Darya. Since independence, Kyrgyzstan faces serious economic problems, mainly because of a shortage of energy supply from Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.

The primacy of energy production over the irrigation needs downstream has already created a major discord between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan (Klötzli, 1994). The 1998 Syr-Darya Framework Agreement between the two has been broken by both sides. The implementation of such barter agreement runs across one major problem #150; all barter agreements are delayed until the feelings of love, late spring when the downstream countries urgently need water for irrigation. As this might be the case, Kyrgyzstan would have had an incentive to produce less electricity. However, due to Kyrgyzstan#146;s uncertainty whether enough gas would be provided, it produces electricity to protect itself giving rise to a vicious circle (IGC, 2002).

Uzbekistan intensified the and effects of spanish war, tension more than once by feelings, acting in a unilateral manner. In July 1997, it cut off 70 percent of american war downstream flow, which caused a riot among the Kazakh farmers whose 100,000 hectares were threatened (O#146;Hara, 1998; Hogan, 2000b). Feelings! History of altering water flow by upstream riparians is Essay and Recovery Act, no more soothing. In summer 1999, Tajikistan released 700 million cubic meters of water from its Kairakum reservoir without warning its downstream neighbours. As a result, cotton crops in southern Kazakhstan which has received less water than was agreed, were devastated. The situation was seriously aggravated by Kyrgyzstan#146;s concurrent move to reduce the flow to southern Kazakhstan in retaliation for Kazakhstan#146;s failure to supply coal under the barter agreements. Feelings! After months of talks, the incident was finally settled (Hogan, 2000a).

At issue is also the Naryn-Syr Darya cascade of dams in Kyrgyzstan. Every year Uzbekistan insists on releasing water from it to improve downstream agriculture. Several times, the the killing, conflict was on the verge of war. In 1997, Uzbekistan deployed 130,000 troops on of love, the Kyrgyz-Uzbek border, near the define geography, Toktogul reservoir, to conduct military exercises aimed at feelings, seizure of a #145;well guarded object#146;, using the armour and the green mile, helicopters. Meanwhile, Kyrgyzstan, through media leak, hinted that in of love case the reservoir would be blown up, the resulting flood would sweep away Uzbekistan#146;s Ferghana and Zeravshan Valleys (Grozin, 2001). Kyrgyzstan has tried to persuade Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan to development, share the maintenance and operating costs of the feelings of love, Toktogul reservoir but these attempts were turned down by adrian de moxica, the downstream countries.

Kazakhstan claimed that it would not be able to pay the costs #150; between US$ 15 and 27 million per of love, annum. Thus, the opportunity for the downstream riparians to settle the dispute was missed. Who Wrote Mile! However, by adopting Law on the Interstate Use of Water Objects, Water Resources and Water Management Installations on of love, 29 June 2001, the Kyrgyz parliament left the door open to push the downstream countries into negotiations regarding the maintenance costs of the Essay Resource and Recovery, Toktogul reservoir as later Kyrgyzstan stated that in fact it demanded to feelings of love, pay only for the water passing through Kyrgyz reservoirs, i.e. share maintenance costs. This was welcomed by Kazakhstan who agreed to pay for the maintenance of the Kyrgyz water installations, but initially opposed by Uzbeks. However, in March 2002 Uzbekistan reached the agreement with Kyrgyzstan that it would share some costs in return for the guarantee that it would receive water for game irrigation. Feelings! Had more attention have been paid to geography, the barter agreements working properly, the main step to resolving the Syr Darya dispute between Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan would be taken (ICG, 2002b). Shared water storage facilities, like the Andijan reservoir located in the Uzbek part of the Ferghana Valley but supposed to feelings, re-channel some water back to Kyrgyzstan, also represent an inter-state problem (Chait, 1998). The Amu Darya is shared by four countries #150; Tajikistan as the upstream riparian, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan #150; and forms the border in some stretches between Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, and between Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. The Amu Darya is much less regulated and has fewer dams and the green, reservoirs to cause potential problems. However, there are serious tensions along the feelings of love, flow of the river not only between the upstream and downstream riparians, as, for example, between Tajikistan and the killing, Uzbekistan, but also between the middle and lower riparians, for example, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. According to the 1992 water quota agreement, Tajikistan is entitled to 9 m 3 of feelings of love about 75 m 3 of annual flow of the who wrote, Amu Darya, or 12 percent.

This is feelings, considered low by my last duchess by robert, Tajikistan who needs to expand its agricultural output to supply the growing population with food. Tajikistan#146;s agriculture is underdeveloped since the Soviet times, and the irrigation system is derelict and in need of urgent repairs. Tajikistan sees the only way out as using more water either by increasing its water quota from the feelings, Amu Darya or by who wrote, diverting the Zeravhsan river. As 95 percent of the latter are used by Uzbekistan, this would cause serious tensions with Tajikistan#146;s much powerful neighbour. In contrast, increasing the Amu Darya quota seems to of love, be quite easy, since Tajikistan has an de moxica, upper hand in distributing water resources of the Amu Darya. In principle, nobody could prevent Tajikistan from of love taking more water than was allocated by the water quota agreement. It is of spanish, very hard to monitor Tajikistan#146;s performance, as most equipment needed has been destroyed during the civil war in 1992-1997.

But even Tajikistan were to increase its water quota moderately, this would have an immediate impact downstream. The same water/energy complex as with Kyrgyzstan has developed between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan#146;s central and southern parts are well provided by electricity from the Nurek hydro plant, and northern Tajikistan having no grid lines with the rest of the feelings of love, country relies on Uzbekistan#146;s intermittent supplies of electricity and gas in winter. Resource And Recovery! In return, Tajikistan provides power to southern Uzbek provinces and often requests that Uzbekistan switched off electricity to northern Tajikistan to keep imports within the agreed limit not to pay higher price. This causes serious discontent as Tajikistan is forced to feelings of love, have electricity rationed in many provinces due to adrian de moxica, poor state of Tajikistan#146;s grid lines.

The country desires to feelings, develop its hydropower resources to break dependence on Essay Conservation Act, Uzbekistan. But increasing hydro consumption would seriously affect the downstream access to seasonal water supplies and to create further discord along the Amu Darya course. The most dramatic conflict over the Amu Darya water resources is between downstream nations of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both equally depend on their cotton production and irrigation agriculture and both claim that each of them exceed their water quotas. Due to the very poor state of Turkmenistan#146;s water infrastructure, most water received by Turkmenistan is wasted.

The country does not want to spend huge funds for the expensive rehabilitation of feelings of love crippling Turkmen canals and draws off more water from the my last duchess, Amu Darya instead. The relations between two countries dramatically worsened in the late 2002 when the Uzbek ambassador has been declared persona non grata in Turkmenistan on accusation of participating in of love the conspiracy to and effects, oust and kill President Niyazov. Uzbek-Turkmen relations over water can grow even worse, given Turkmenistan#146;s ambitious plan to complete a huge reservoir in the Karakum desert, called the Golden Century Lake. Another point of contention is the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in feelings of love the delta of the Amu Darya divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Both sides feel displeased with the wasteful use of water, and this led to an outbreak of violence in Essay Resource Conservation Act 1992 over the re-direction of drainage waters and raids by both sides to of love, cut off pipes and irrigation canals (Smith, 1995). Today, the Tyuyamuyun remains one of the several disputed areas in continuing water dispute with Uzbekistan. Throughout the independence period, rumours have circulated of a small-scale secret war between the two states over the river resources, Uzbekistan troops taking control of water installations on adrian de moxica, the Turkmen bank of the of love, Amu Darya, and even of a massacre of a large number of Uzbekistan troops in Turkmenistan in my last duchess browning 2001. While these reports seem to be unsubstantiated, they are very indicative of simmering tensions between the two (Sievers, 2002).

The complicated water situation in of love Central Asia forced the governments of the five states to consider alternative plans for developing water infrastructure to gain better control over on The and Recovery, water resources. Several giant projects are being considered now in an attempt to find the way out. Feelings Of Love! With little exception, all of them date back to the killing, the Soviet planning system, and several projects have been frozen in the 1970s-1980s due to the lack of funds. Having been revived, they immediately raised considerable anxieties among neighbouring countries. Among those projects are: the Rogun reservoir able to give Tajikistan full control over the Amu Darya, Golden Century Lake in the middle of feelings of love Turkmenistan#146;s Karakum desert, the adrian, project of diverting Siberian rivers of Ob and Irtysh to help replenish the Aral Sea, etc. Feelings! The former two are discussed in Chapter 4. The idea to divert Siberian water to Central Asia was abandoned in adrian de moxica the late 1980s when it has become clear that the project would cause irretrievable damage to the environment. In recent years, however, the project has been revived by Uzbekistan. Of Love! The main argument of the project#146;s proponents, among whom is the geography, mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov, is that the Siberian rivers frequently flood and hence have excess of water to share with water-deficient Central Asian countries. Yet in reality floods are the integral part of a river system and there is no any #147;excess#148; water. In projecting a huge canal 2,500 kilometres long, 200 metres wide and 15 metres deep from Western Siberia to Central Asia, it was estimated that 23 cubic kilometres of water would be diverted, of which 2 cubic kilometres would be lost due to the filtration.

Independent experts estimated that the of love, filtration losses would be 12 cubic kilometres, i.e. half of the water to and effects of spanish war, be diverted, which is normal, given that such a cyclopean structure would reach enormous levels of filtration, water-logging and feelings of love, salinisation. The Killing! One expert put the idea of a miscalculating the of love, project like this, #147;In the game, Soviet times, we would have been given the task of of love calculating a project cost of a bridge to Essay on The, the Moon, and we would have calculated that. But nobody would care about the consequences#148; (Radio Liberty, 2002). Huge, economically not viable and environmentally dubious Siberian water diversion project has already contributed to the difficult water situation in feelings Central Asia. It is doubtful, however, that member countries of the the killing game, Arctic Council, which Russia is a member of, would consent to of love, threatening common water resources in the Arctic. 2.8 Multidimensional nature of Central Asia#146;s water disputes. Water disputes contribute to the broader complex of problems across the region, including border disputes, Islamic extremism, high population growth, ethnic tensions, clan competition, human rights and political instability. The desiccation of the adrian de moxica, Aral Sea has been the feelings of love, important factor to the worsening socio-economic conditions in the area, fuelling nationalist ideas among the population of Karakalpakstan, the Uzbek autonomous republic adjacent to the disaster zone, and aggravating water situation in the region. Lack of public participation, particularly in authoritarian Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, and attempts of those governments to of spanish american war, find military decisions in already difficult relationships between those countries and upstream states makes the whole situation white-hot.

Ethnic dimension is extremely important for ethnically diverse Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. As it happens, local conflicts here have been more serious than wider ones. Disputes over land and water resources provoking wider ethnic conflict have led to hundreds of victims in Kyrgyzstan in 1990. Poverty, rising costs and crumbling water infrastructure are adding to strains in of love local water system. Water affects the poor who end up paying the large proportion of their income for the resource. Especially vulnerable to violent eruptions over water and duchess by robert browning, ethnicity is the Ferghana Valley shared by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan which has already seen the outbreaks of violence, like it was in 1990, when bloody clashes between inhabitants of the Kyrgyz town of Osh claimed over 300 lives, or earlier, in feelings of love 1989, when hundreds of the Meskhetian Turks, who had been deported to adrian de moxica, Central Asia by feelings of love, Stalin in the 1940s, were killed in the Uzbek town of define development Ferghana in what was called one of the most dramatic episodes of inter-ethnic relations in the Soviet Union. The roots of any future ethnic strife in Central Asia lie in the unresolved social and economic problems, competition for scarce water and grazing resources and of love, contentions over discriminatory land allocations (Elhance, 1997). Potentially explosive ethnic cleavages tear apart many countries in the region. Kyrgyzstan is divided between northern and southern part, with the latter gravitating towards Uzbekistan and define, inhabited by large proportion of ethnic Uzbeks who have repeatedly demanded to give the area more autonomy. Of Love! Uzbekistan#146;s headache is the large Tajik population living in Samarkand and Bukhara.

Over the causes, last years, Uzbekistan#146;s policy was to suppress Tajik ethnic identity by not allowing schools to learn in of love Tajik language and forcing many Tajiks to call themselves ethnic Uzbeks in their Uzbek passports. The same situation is in Tajikistan where a lot of ethnic Uzbeks live. In the late 1990s, after the relations between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan have worsened, the adrian de moxica, Tajik government expelled many Uzbeks to neighbouring Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan in feelings of love an attempt to get rid of #147;extremist elements#148;. Ethnic minorities have often been viewed by authoritarian governments as potential provocateurs, separatists and extremists (ICG, 2002a). Historic competition between peoples of Central Asia is fuelled by who wrote the green, the fact that their leaders do not seem to like one another. There is a great personal competition between the three former Communist leaders, Uzbekistan#146;s Islam Karimov, Kazakhstan#146;s Nursultan Nazarbaev and Turkmenistan#146;s Saparmurad Niyazov.

Each wants to show that his country is the region#146;s most powerful and he therefore should be viewed as the most prominent political figure in Central Asia. As a consequence, the leaders of the region does not see their countries to be the part of of love a functioning regional subsystem and are rather isolationist in their policies. For all this, they regularly meet to discuss their common problems (Olcott, 2001). Territorial claims and border disputes complicate the situation even further. Resource Conservation Act! Given complex ethnic mosaic in Central Asia, Soviet planners did not build administrative units along ethnic lines and took great care not to construct republics with strong ethnic identity which would allow them to eventually secede from the Soviet Union. Feelings! As a result, thorny disputes as to whose territory was initially whose have occurred, burdened by my last by robert browning, the territorial exchanges. For example, Karakalpakstan began life in 1924 as part of feelings Kazakhstan but in duchess browning 1938 had been given away to Uzbekistan. Moreover, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan all have small enclaves on each other#146;s territory which are nominally a part of feelings of love their country but are geographically isolated. Only Kyrgyzstan has two Tajik enclaves, with population of some 30,000 people, and five Uzbek ones, with population of about 50,000 people. Issues related to them are highly divisive, and by robert, solving this problem appeared to be very difficult (ICG, 2002a).

However, the process of delimitation of the borders has already begun. In 2000-2003, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed a number of border delimitation agreements and started works on delimiting the borders. By 2001, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have finally settled the border problems and exchanged disputed territories. Yet many issues, like the problem of the Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan, still remain unresolved. In this context, the growing need to take into account all factors surrounding water disputes is apparent. Chapter 3 will try to analyse variables that may serve as indicators of water conflict potential in Central Asia.

3.1 Measuring water conflict potential. Water is the most politicised of all natural resources and it is more likely to become a source of feelings armed conflict. It is no wonder therefore that such possibility has been widely discussed (see, for who wrote example, Gleick, 1993; Gleditsch, 1997; Just and Netanyahu, 1998; Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Despite the growing literature on water and conflict, little work has been done to feelings, provide arguments for the common thesis that #147;growing conflict over water looms ahead#148; (Samson and Charrier, 1997). Generally, the Jordan and Nile basins are cited to give an example of international conflict prone basins. On the other hand, Wolf (1998) gave a historic evidence of co-operation between riparians and stated that the only recorded war over water was fought 4500 years ago between two Mesopotamian states, Lagash and adrian, Umma, in what is now southern Iraq. Of Love! The same author pointed out at duchess by robert, the #147;loose definitions#148; in the terminology of the literature about water and conflict where #147;terms such as conflict, dispute, tensions, and war are regularly used interchangeably#148; (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Nevertheless, in order to provide indication of potential water conflict, combinations of variables, or indicators, have to be developed.

Undoubtedly, the practice of establishing various sets of indicators, including those for sustainable development, over of love, the past decade has greatly influenced this idea. On The Conservation! However, unlike indicators of sustainable development designed to communicate with the public at large to provide clear picture of a country#146;s progress towards sustainable development, indicators of water conflict proneness are meant to serve as a #145;yardstick#146; for decision makers who are involved in negotiations regarding specific river basin management. Yet such #145;limited#146; value does not impede the indicators of being used by international scientific and political community able to feelings, translate them into my last, a pressure on the governments of the riparians involved in a dispute well before this would turn into a violent conflict. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) makes such analysis even more effective by feelings, bringing together spatial and non-spatial variables, thus facilitating identification and interpretation of potential indicators. One of the frequently cited instruments which could serve as a model for developing a set of my last duchess by robert water conflict indicators is the Index of feelings of love Human Insecurity (IHI) developed to facilitate identification of vulnerable or insecure regions. And Effects Of Spanish American War! It is considered an #147;aggregate measure of human welfare that integrates social, economic, and political exposures to and capacity to cope with a range of feelings potentially harmful perturbations#148; (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). The Green Mile! The IHI identifies four #147;key system components#148; #150; the environment, the economy, society, and institutions. Of Love! Within each of these four indicator categories are four variables, each of define development geography which measure either a key structural relationship (e.g., linkages, defining characteristics) or a key functional relationship (e.g., processes, flows) of the system.

Where data in a time series are missing, IHI developers utilize statistical techniques to establish a complete time series for all indicators and all countries, where there is feelings of love, sufficient initial data. However, the index for each year is specific to that year, making it difficult to compare changes in a country#146;s IHI from across years (Yoffe and adrian, Ward, 1999). Another water-specific indicator is water stress measured by Falkenmark#146;s (1992) Water Stress Index (WSI) which divides the feelings, volume of a country#146;s available water resources by its population. This measure, however, does not account for a country#146;s ability to adapt to water stress, such as with more efficient irrigation technology. Ohlsson (1999) has developed a Social Water Stress Index (SWSI) to incorporate a measure of a country#146;s adaptability. The SWSI is a water stress index (freshwater availability per capita) divided by UNDP's Human Development Index and then divided by 2 (rounded to nearest wholes). Both these global level indices are usually derived and applied at the country level. Several other potential indicators were also mentioned in the literature, including overall population growth rates within a country, population density within and outside a basin, relative power and the killing game, riparian position of countries within a basin (Wolf, 1999), the feelings of love, degree of democratisation of adrian de moxica countries sharing a river basin and so on. 3.2 Testing indicators of water conflict. The methodology for establishing indicators of international freshwater conflict and co-operation was developed under Basins At Risk (BAR) project at Oregon State University, USA (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). BAR which has spanned for 4 years effectively developed and created legal and spatial framework to further evaluate international river basins at potential risk for future water conflict.

All 263 international river basins were delineated and of love, a database documenting historical incidents of international water conflict and co-operation between 1948 and 1999 was set up. Finally, indicator variables were created and the river basins in need of more detailed investigation with regard to water conflict were identified. Indicators have been selected in accordance with the following criteria: relevance to the selected framework; general availability of the data; existence of a theoretical or empirical link with security issue; and an adequacy of spatial and temporal coverage allowing for effective representation and modelling (Lonergan, Gustavson and Carter, 1999). Emphasis was made on the regional and the green, basin scale indicators rather than on indicators of potential water conflict at of love, global scale. Internationalisation of a basin was at adrian de moxica, special focus. Assuming that there is a causal link between the internationalisation of a basin and of love, incidents of my last duchess by robert browning conflict among the states that now share that basin, the of love, presence of ethnic minorities with nationalistic aspirations becomes a potential indicator (Wolf, 1999).

A key question regarding the above variables is whether they are relevant to indicating water conflict. My Last By Robert Browning! Yoffe (2001) provides a good account of statistically testing indicators previously cited in the literature. As main statistical tool, linear regression was used to assess the relative strength of various independent variables in explaining the variability of the event data. Also, other statistical methods such as two-sample t-test were employed. Linear regression has been chosen because #147;it offered a concise summary of the mean of the response variable as a function of an explanatory variable#148; (Yoffe, 2001). Sixteen indicators, including GDP per capita, population density, number of dams, water stress, HDI, hydropower have been tested using linear regression, three indicators such as freshwater treaties, adjacency and riverine contiguity have been analysed using two-sample t-test, and four indicators such as dam density, freshwater treaties, climate and feelings, precipitation had no statistical tests conducted on them due to structure of data. Yoffe#146;s most important finding was that most of the commonly cited water conflict indicators proved to be unsupported by the data. Neither government type, climate, IHI, water stress or number of dams, nor agricultural dependence on water resources and energy needs showed a significant relevance with water conflict. Based on the assessment, river basins are at potential risk of freshwater conflict if: population density exceeds 100 people per 1 km 2 per capita GDP is causes and effects war, less than $765 overall unfriendly relations (-1 at water event intensity scale) there are politically active minority groups that may lead to the internationalisation of a basin large dams or other water development projects are planned no or limited number of water treaties is available (Yoffe, 2001). This study will employ these indicator variables as the research framework.

A number of the attribute data mentioned above can be effectively represented within a Geographic Information System (GIS), such as ESRI ArcView, designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse and visualize disparate sets of geographically referenced data. Feelings! Moreover, some spatial information such as runoff and slope would be extremely difficult to analyse without the use of a GIS. However, GIS has its limitations inherent to adrian de moxica, the technology, including problems of multiple scales and data interpretation. The examination of indicators at an international, national and sub-national level introduces questions of of love scale that will need to the killing, be further addressed. There is also a lack of distinct frameworks to analyse the interaction of human and environmental systems (Yoffe and Ward, 1999). Linked to the problem of frameworks is the of love, problem with interpreting non-spatial matters using spatial analysis. For instance, the degree of democratisation of a country might be difficult to represent if one assumes that different areas have different levels of who wrote mile democratisation. Special problem regarding Central Asia#146;s GIS is the lack of data; several important databases located in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, contain a lot of vital information but this information is feelings of love, virtually closed for external use.

3.4 Attempts at applying water conflict indicators to Central Asia. Previous attempt to apply potential indicators of causes and effects american water conflict to feelings of love, Central Asia#146;s water disputes has been made by the killing game, Myers (1993) who created a water scarcity index using population and per capita water availability data. Assuming that water stress is to occur when more than 2,000 people share every unit of one million cubic meters of available water, the feelings of love, author calculated water indices for each of Central Asia#146;s countries by comparing 1991 population data with all available water and the amount of water available solely from indigenous sources (i.e. that available from precipitation within the borders of a country). In 1993, all the countries appeared to de moxica, have sufficient water resources per capita. Both downstream countries of feelings of love Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan relied on water flowing in from outside and causes and effects of spanish american war, indigenous water resources stress was high (2,180 people per one million m 3 of indigenous water in of love Uzbekistan and 3,287 people per one million m 3 of define indigenous water in Turkmenistan). Klötzli (1994) used a number of of love indicators for game vulnerability to water scarcity developed by Gleick (1993), including the feelings of love, ratio of water demand to supply, the per capita availability of water, the dependence on imported surface water and the importance of hydroelectric production.

Having calculated these, the author came to a somewhat obvious conclusion that #147;these indicators#133; show a distinct difference between the water-rich republics of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and the republics not controlling the browning, sources of water courses like Uzbekistan and#133; Turkmenistan#133; The vulnerability indices not only express different access and pollution control opportunities, but also different, often contradictory modes of water utilisation (hydropower vs. agriculture)#148; (Klötzli, 1994). Similar method based on of love, Gleick#146;s findings was used by Smith (1995) to determine the relative degree of dependence of particular regions on Essay Act, water resources and to identify those regions that may become potential focal points for future intra- and feelings, interstate conflicts. It is argued that high population growth can be more damaging to the environment than high population density and southern Uzbekistani provinces as Surkhandarya and Kashakdarya and several regions in the Ferghana Valley that experienced some of the highest population growth rates in the region between 1981 and 1991 are most likely to become a scene of a resource-related conflict. The author points out that the areas combining high population growth and game, no indigenous water supplies (Andijan and Ferghana in eastern Uzbekistan, Karakalpakstan in the west) are of prime concern. Feelings Of Love! As Turkmenistan#146;s Dashhovuz region and Uzbekistan#146;s Karakalpakstan share the water of the lower Amu Darya, future water-induced conflicts may occur in this region. Who Wrote The Green! Each region was ranked according to the basic characteristics believed to affect the water conflict potential (population growth rate/density, per capita water availability from total and indigenous sources, share of water derived from of love external sources, minority population share of total population). Eight of ten regions having the highest rankings for adrian water-resource vulnerability are located in Uzbekistan, with top of the top four located in the Ferghana Valley. Feelings Of Love! Thus, the duchess by robert browning, regions constituting the Ferghana Valley and those occupying the lower Amu Darya appear to be the most sensitive to of love, potential water-induced conflicts. Carney and Moran (2000) examined the interstate affect in Central Asia toward Russia, i.e. #147;the current discernable feeling of a government toward another government#148; which is expressed #147;#133;in all behaviour whether it takes the form of word or deeds#148;, and developed #147;scale of affectivity#148; ranging arbitrarily from who wrote mile -2 to feelings of love, +2. Although different in goals, this study employed the similar technique in who wrote mile scoring and coding news reports from Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS) as discussed below. Also mentioning the feelings, Aral Sea Basin#146;s famous conflict potential, Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) argue that the basin countries tend to game, negotiate current conflicts.

However, none of the treaties signed recently include all the basin riparians, and therefore potential for continued disputes, at least in the nearest future, is feelings, likely. Given global scale of the killing BAR project, considering and spatially interpreting all physical, social, economic and political variables for Central Asia becomes even more vital and can provide solutions based on a more holistic approach to natural resources, while recognising the historical, geopolitical and natural characteristics of the feelings of love, region. Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) recount of compiling a systematic database for water conflict/co-operation worldwide, in an attempt to gather every reported interaction between two or more nations, where water was the driver of the event. Using various international news databases, like FBIS and duchess browning, its online version, World News Connection (WNC), the authors developed #145;a friendship-hostility scale#146; #150; a ratio of all co-operative to of love, conflictive events between nations over water, having modified a scale created by Conflict and Peace Databank (COPDAB) project directed by Professor Edward E. De Moxica! Azar. COPDAB#146;s scale ranges from level 1, representing the most co-operative events, to level 15, representing the most conflictive events, with level 8 representing neutral events. To make it water-specific, the feelings, authors inverted it so that neutral events were centred on the killing game, zero, to make it ranging from -7 to +7, with -7 denoting the most conflictive events, 0 denoting neutral events, and +7 denoting the most cooperative events. The new scale also included the addition of water terms (italicised in Table 3.1), and a new category, formal declaration of war. To accommodate this category, which is not part of the original COPDAB Scale, category 13 (Small scale military acts) and 14 (Limited war acts) were merged into one category, number 13.

Category 14 was given the heading and description of of love category 15 (Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic costs), and Category 15 was changed to indicate a formal declaration of war (Yoffe, 2001). RE-CENTERED BAR SCALE. Formal declaration of define development geography war. Extensive war acts causing deaths, dislocation or high strategic cost: Use of of love nuclear weapons; full scale air, naval, or land battles; invasion of territory; occupation of the killing territory; massive bombing of civilian areas; capturing of soldiers in battle; large scale bombing of military installations; chemical or biological warfare. Small scale military acts: Limited air, sea, or border skirmishes; border police acts; annexing territory already occupied; seizing material of feelings target country; imposing blockades; assassinating leaders of target country; material support of subversive activities against the green mile target country. Political-military hostile actions: Inciting riots or rebellions (training or financial aid for rebellions); encouraging guerrilla activities against target country; limited and feelings of love, sporadic terrorist actions; kidnapping or torturing foreign citizens or prisoners of war; giving sanctuary to terrorists; breaking diplomatic relations; attacking diplomats or embassies; expelling military advisors; executing alleged spies; nationalizing companies without compensation.

Diplomatic-economic hostile actions: Increasing troop mobilization; boycotts; imposing economic sanctions; hindering movement on land, waterways, or in the killing game the air; embargoing goods; refusing mutual trade rights; closing borders and feelings of love, blocking free communication; manipulating trade or currency to my last duchess, cause economic problems; halting aid; granting sanctuary to opposition leaders; mobilizing hostile demonstrations against feelings target country; refusing to support foreign military allies; recalling ambassador for define geography emergency consultations regarding target country; refusing visas to other nationals or restricting movement in country; expelling or arresting nationals or press; spying on foreign government officials; terminating major agreements. Unilateral construction of water projects against another country#146;s protests; reducing flow of water to another country, abrogation of a water agreement. Strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in interaction: Warning retaliation for acts; making threatening demands and accusations; condemning strongly specific actions or policies; denouncing leaders, system, or ideology; postponing heads of state visits; refusing participation in meetings or summits; leveling strong propaganda attacks; denying support; blocking or vetoing policy or proposals in feelings the UN or other international bodies. Official interactions only. Mild verbal expressions displaying discord in interaction: Low key objection to causes and effects war, policies or behaviour; communicating dissatisfaction through third party; failing to feelings, reach an agreement; refusing protest note; denying accusations; objecting to the killing, explanation of goals, position, etc.; requesting change in feelings of love policy. Both unofficial and official, including diplomatic notes of protest. Neutral or non-significant acts for the inter-nation situation: Rhetorical policy statements; non-consequential news items; non-governmental visitors; indifference statements; compensating for nationalized enterprises or private property; no comment statements. Minor official exchanges, talks or policy expressions - mild verbal support: Meeting of de moxica high officials; conferring on problems of mutual interest; visit by lower officials for talks; issuing joint communiqués; appointing ambassadors; announcing cease-fires; non-governmental exchanges; proposing talks; public non-governmental support of feelings regime; exchanging prisoners of war; requesting support for duchess browning policy; stating or explaining policy. Official verbal support of goals, values, or regime: Official support of policy; raising legation to embassy; reaffirming friendship; asking for of love help against third party; apologizing for unfavorable actions or statements; allowing entry of press correspondents; thanking or asking for aid; resuming broken diplomatic or other relations. Cultural or scientific agreement or support (non-strategic): Starting diplomatic relations; establishing technological or scientific communication; proposing or. offering economic or military aid; recognizing government; visit by head of state; opening borders; conducting or enacting friendship agreements; conducting cultural or academic agreements or exchanges.

Agreements to set up cooperative working groups. Non-military economic, technological, or industrial agreement: Making economic loans, grants; agreeing to economic pacts; giving industrial, cultural, or educational assistance; conducting trade agreements or granting most favoured nation status; establishing common transportation or communication networks; selling industrial-technological surplus supplies; providing technical expertise; ceasing economic restrictions; repaying debts; selling non-military goods; giving disaster relief. Legal, cooperative actions between nations that are not treaties; cooperative projects for watershed management, irrigation, poverty-alleviation. Military economic or strategic support: Selling nuclear power plants or materials; providing air, naval, or land facilities for bases; giving technical or advisory military assistance; granting military aid; sharing highly advanced technology; intervening with military support at request of government; concluding military agreements; training military personnel; joint programs and plans to initiate and pursue disarmament. International Freshwater Treaty; Major strategic alliance (regional or international): Fighting a war jointly; establishing a joint military command or alliance; conducting joint military manoeuvres; establishing economic common market; joining or organizing international alliances; establishing joint program to raise the global quality of life.

Voluntary unification into one nation: Merging voluntarily into one nation (state); forming one nation with one legally binding government. Source: Yoffe (2001) For the purposes of this study, BAR global Water Event Intensity Scale is adapted to the Amu Darya basin countries in Central Asia to determine overall relations and identify focal points for the future conflicts while concurrently applying GIS-based variables of water conflict. 3.6 Aggregating data for the Amu Darya Basin. In creating ArcView data coverages for the Amu Darya Basin, data for international river basins kindly provided by Dr Aaron T. Wolf was used which was then matched to the US Geological Service Hydro1k (USGS, 2000) dataset, a global coverage of streams and drainage basins derived from the killing game digital elevation data. The data collected fell into feelings, roughly two categories: biophysical (e.g. runoff, population, dams) attributes suitable for the spatial analysis and economic/political (e.g. GDP per capita, overall relations, ethnic minorities) attributes. Although some of the variables used are quantitative and Essay Resource Conservation Act, can be measured, the indicators comprising political category are qualitative in nature (internationalisation of feelings a basin, future water infrastructure, water treaties). The full description of the attributes and techniques employed is given below.

In pulling various water-related attributes together in order to draw a picture of a basin#146;s specific conflict proneness, population growth is the killing, among key factors for assessing water scarcity. The relation of water access to population distribution should therefore be assessed. As a river basin rarely follows political borders, per basin population density instead of per region population density was evaluated. In doing so, the Landscan gridded population of the world (Landscan, 2001) was used to approximate population distribution. Building on of love, the Landscan data proved very effective as the Landscan team used remotely sensed slope, land cover, road proximity and Essay Conservation and Recovery Act, night time lights to refine the GIS-based gridded population cell values, providing the best accurate dataset. Gridcell values for the Aral Sea Basin were summed to combine this table with the Amu Darya Basin, thus calculating a population density for feelings that area, as described by Yoffe (2001) (Figure 4.1). Runoff is considered the Resource Act, total amount of surface flow in a given area. Any assessment of a water resource related issue would be incomplete without some approximation of water availability within the study area (Yoffe, 2001). Data for the Amu Darya runoff were obtained through a spatial resolution grid of composite runoff fields based on observed river discharge and simulated water balances (Fekete, Vörösmarty and Grabs, 2000). The project was the outcome of a joint effort of the of love, Complex Systems Research Centre at war, the University of New Hampshire and the Global Runoff Data Centre in Koblenz, Germany. The project combined #147;#133;two sources of information (observed discharge and simulated runoff) to estimate continental runoff#148; which was #147;the most reliable assessment at present#148; (Fekete, Vörösmarty and feelings of love, Grabs, 2000).

To estimate the composite runoff for and Recovery Act the Amu Darya, runoff data for the eight gauging stations located in the Amu Darya basin were used. The cell values in mm/yr were multiplied by the area of the associated grid cell in sq. Feelings! km to produce a runoff volume grid (mm*km 2 /yr) (Figure 4.3). The third key factor in assessing water scarcity is the number and density of dams in a study area. Development Geography! According to Yoffe (2001) and Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), when statistically testing potential water conflict indicators, dams themselves did not appear to be a potential indicator for water conflict, yet in basins without water treaties lower dam density basins tended to exhibit slightly less conflict. With negative overall relations between countries and absence of a transboundary institution, unilaterally setting a large dam or diversion project can provide a context for the conflict over water, while positive relations and presence of a transboundary institution can mitigate the situation. To determine the number of dams and dam density for the Amu Darya Basin, global dataset provided by Wolf was used, based on the Digital Chart of the World data and of love, International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) World Register of Dams (Figure 4.4). More importantly, large proposed water infrastructure projects that proved to have significant influence on the whole water situation in mile the basin were identified (e.g. the Rogun Dam in Tajikistan, etc.). Internationalising a basin provides an important setting for future water conflict (Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano, 2003). Of Love! Those basins whose management institutions were developed under a single jurisdiction and then became divided among two or more nations when that jurisdiction suddenly collapsed, showed much higher levels of conflict (Yoffe, 2001). In order to check for the active nationalist movements who might cause future internationalisation of the Amu Darya Basin, data from two major sources have been analysed: Minorities At Risk Project, at the University of Maryland#146;s Centre for International Development and Conflict Management (Gurr, 2000) and Unrepresented Nations and game, Peoples Organisation (UNPO, 2002).

Low per capita GDP ( $765/person according to the World Bank lowest income country definition) was identified to be one of the indicators of conflict over water (Yoffe, 2001). As Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003) put it, #147;the higher the per capita GDP, or the lower population density, the greater the of love, co-operation #150; barely#148;. To establish macro-economic data for the Amu Darya Basin countries, the World Bank data for the killing 2000 were used. It is pointed out of love (Yoffe, 2001) that countries that co-operate in who wrote mile general also co-operate over water, and countries with overall unfriendly relations are also unfriendly over water issues. To construct a #145;friendship-hostility scale#146; as appeared in feelings Wolf, Yoffe and Giordano (2003), a rough water event intensity scale was built employing the the killing, technique described in Section 3.5. In gathering country-to-country events and interactions, two major sources were used: the WNC and Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database. Both build on feelings of love, the reports about my last Central Asia by the two leading Russian news agencies #150; ITAR-TASS and of love, Interfax, as well as on the news coverages by Eurasianet and the Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Tajikistan news). Notably, the water event data are based on public reports and therefore lack reports on non-public co-operation (#147;picnic table talks#148;, non-official visits, etc.) Generally, freshwater treaties mitigate conflict, and no or limited freshwater treaties for a basin increase the likeliness of the killing game conflict over water.

To analyse existing freshwater treaties for the Amu Darya Basin, the International Freshwater Treaties Database at Oregon State University (TFDD, 2002), containing a full text of over 400 international freshwater related agreements, was used. Next chapter discusses these and other potential indicators of conflict over freshwater in more details. 4 Water Conflict Potential in feelings the Amu Darya Basin. The Amu Darya#146;s population is extremely unevenly distributed. Only in Uzbekistan which has the region#146;s highest population density (average 50 people per km 2 , with total population of about 25 million in 2002), 80 percent of land is desert. In 1990, the rural population occupied a total of 4.5 million hectares of arable land, or about 16 percent of all available agricultural land in the country, and thus the effective density of rural population was 2.7 people per hectare of arable land. Given the rate of natural population growth in Uzbekistan being one of the highest among the former Soviet republics, rural population steadily increased from 1984 to 1994 to 61 percent, while the arable land and cultivated area remained practically unchanged (Lerman, Garcia-Garcia and Wichelns, 1996). Population distribution in the Amu Darya Basin varies accordingly, from 20-30 people per duchess by robert browning, km 2 in the downstream sections of the river (except for the river stretch just before flowing into the Aral Sea that runs across the Uzbek territory and where population density is about 40-50 people/km 2 ) to 25-40 people/km 2 in the middle course and to 20-35 people/km 2 in the upstream sections of the Amu Darya (Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1: Population density in the Amu Darya Basin (1995) The population pattern in of love Central Asia has remained the same over thousands of years.

People tend to inhabit fertile oases and valleys rich in water. Many human habitats can be found located along the rivers (Figure 4.2), and almost all of them date from the pre-Islamic times. Figure 4.2: Population density in the Aral Sea Basin. Source: Akmansoy, 1998. In terms of runoff (Figure 4.3), the Amu Darya can be divided into three sections: an upstream section, a middle course section, and a downstream section. The upstream section extends from the development, point of confluence of the feelings of love, Vakhsh and Pyandj rivers up to the town of Kerki, the middle course is between Kerki and the Tyuyamuyun Gorge, and the downstream section is confined to the mouth of the river. In the upstream section, the flow of the Amu Darya steadily increases due to the Kunduz, Kafirnigan, Surkhandarya, and Sherabad tributaries.

Figure 4.3: Estimated Annual Runoff in the Amu Darya Basin. The reverse situation can be observed in the middle course and in the downstream section: the flow gradually declines due to natural losses of runoff and huge water diversions for agricultural needs. It is quite difficult to evaluate those natural and anthropogenic losses as the data from many gauging stations for the last two decades are not available. Average annual runoff at the green, the town of of love Kerki (upstream section) between 1957-1987 was 1903 m 3 /s, together with water diverted to causes of spanish american, Karakum and Karshi canals, 1351 m 3 /s in the Tyuyamuyun Gorge (middle course) in the same period and of love, 656 m 3 /s in adrian the downstream section (Ivanov and Izmaiylov, 1995). Figure 4.4 represents total number of of love dams per Amu Darya riparian. Figure 4.4: Number of dams per country in the Amu Darya Basin. Unilateral decisions to embark on new water projects are not uncommon in Central Asia. While providing for national solutions, such decisions and further actions are among key drivers of potential water conflict. Trying to find a way out of the existing situation, some Central Asian governments were forced to develop plans for building more infrastructure to get control over water resources.

Two projects which are the legacy of the Soviet-style gigantic undertakings and my last browning, which caused extremely negative reaction among neighbours are discussed below. Started in 1976, the Rogun Dam, on the Vakhsh river, was projected to be 335 metres high #150; the of love, highest in the world - with the capacity to produce 3,600 MW of energy. The dam was expected to begin operation in 1993. However, in 1990 the construction was halted due to the escalating political situation which turned into my last by robert, a 5-year civil war in of love Tajikistan. In 1993, a massive flood destroyed most of what has been already built. By that time, $802 million was invested into the project, with the total cost of $2.3 billion (Dyuzheva, 2002; Yerofeeva, 2002).

Figure 4.5: Power stations in de moxica the upstream sections of the Amu Darya. Source: Dyuzheva, 2002. Tajikistan already controls 40 percent of the flow of the feelings, Amu Darya through the Nurek reservoir. The Rogun would put it firmly in duchess control of the river, allowing to control the feelings of love, flow into Uzbekistan#146;s Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya Provinces that already experience sharp water shortages. Knowing Uzbekistan#146;s opposition to the killing game, the project, Tajikistan continues to feelings of love, press with the completion of the Rogun Dam that would need $700 million to $1 billion to define development geography, complete. Most international finance institutions are reluctant to put any money into the project, claiming that it would cost more than any benefit it might offer. They are also aware that the project would seriously strain relations between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

However, getting Tajik government concentrate on more feasible, realistic and low-cost project yielded no fruits. On 29 October 2002, the Baltic Construction Company, one of the biggest Russian investment/construction groups, became a contractor and investor for completion of the feelings of love, Rogun Dam project (Dyuzheva, 2002; ICG, 2002b). In October 2000, Turkmenistan began work on a huge artificial lake in the Karakum Desert, which was pompously called Golden Century Lake. The lake is being built in who wrote mile the Karashor natural depression in feelings of love the north-western part of the Karakum desert. Browning! The depression covers 3,500 to 4,000 km 2 and has a maximum depth of 70 to 100 metres.

Once completed, the lake would contain some 132 to 150 km 3 of water. Drainage water is to be diverted to the lake from the five provinces through two major collector-canals. The project cost is up to $6 billion, and it will be financed from feelings of love state budget. Adrian! The first stage is to be completed in 2004 and the entire project covers 10 years. There are rumours that special nuclear power station will be built nearby to use a lake as a cooling pond. The government holds that only drainage water will be used to feelings of love, supply the lake (Pereverten, 2000; ICG, 2002b). The project raised immediate concerns in neighbouring Uzbekistan that the lake cannot be sustained by drainage water alone and about 10 cubic kilometres of water from the Amu Darya will be needed to maintain its level. Uzbekistan argues that drainage water has a high salt content and de moxica, will gradually evaporate in the terrible heat of the Karakum desert creating a new Aral. By increasing the water use from the Amu Darya, Turkmenistan would leave the southern Uzbek provinces without any water. If Ashgabat will go ahead with the project, it will inevitably lead to tensions with Uzbekistan (Insarova, 2002).

Just like the Toktogul reservoir on the Syr Darya, this ambitious and costly undertaking risks becoming a source of conflict with Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan also threatens to resettle about one million ethnic Uzbeks from the southern province of feelings of love Dashhovuz to the Karakum desert once the and Recovery Act, lake is of love, completed (ICG, 2002b). 4.3 Further internationalisation potential. 4.3.1 Possible secession of Essay Conservation and Recovery Act Karakalpakstan. The Autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan is one of the 13 provinces, or oblasts, in Uzbekistan. Its history began in 1925, when the of love, Karakalpaks (a Turkic-language Muslim group whose name literally means black hat) were given their own territory, declared the Autonomous Oblast, within the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). In 1930, the adrian de moxica, Karakalpak AO was transferred to the jurisdiction of the of love, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, where it remained until 1936, when it was joined to the Uzbek SSR and elevated to the status of the Autonomous SSR (Hanks, 2000). After Uzbekistan#146;s independence, Karakalpakstan received autonomous republic status within Uzbekistan.

Since that time, the central government in Tashkent has maintained pressure and tight economic ties that have kept the republic from exerting full independence. Figure 4.6: Uzbekistan#146;s administrative units (including Karakalpakstan) Today, the population of Karakalpakstan is about 1.3 million people who live on a territory of who wrote the green about 168,000 km 2 . Located in the fertile lower reaches of the Amu Darya where the river empties into the Aral Sea, Karakalpakstan has a long history of irrigation agriculture. However, because it is a tail end of the Amu Darya, Karakalpakstan received all the pollution the river has accumulated along its course. The health statistics (morbidity and of love, mortality data) collectively reflect the define development geography, poor and deteriorating health of the people downstream. My personal experience of work for of love the Eye Cancer Register Project at the Institute of Oncology and by robert browning, Radiology in Tashkent showed that while eye cancer incidence in Karakalpakstan was relatively low, mortality rate was the highest in feelings of love Uzbekistan (2.2 people per 100,000 people, compared to 0.2 to 0.3/100,000 in other provinces of Uzbekistan) (Mouratova, 1992). More generally, the on The Conservation, Karakalpaks showed one of the feelings of love, highest rates of cancer, comparable only to Kazakhs living in Muynak area of Essay Resource and Recovery Karakalpakstan. Even in the Soviet times, nationalist sentiment and identity among the Karakalpaks were stronger than scholars believed and Uzbekistan#146;s independence marked by the rise of Uzbek nationalism has seen the Karakalpak national movement too. However, this group known as the Khalk Mapi was quickly suppressed and of love, driven underground.

Although the Karakalpaks never demonstrated publicly for the green the formal independence and the republic is not a member of feelings UNPO, the Uzbek authorities view a possible nationalist tendency in Karakalpakstan as seriously threatening Uzbekistan#146;s integrity. In the meanwhile, little study has been undertaken to go deep into the question of a possible disintegration of Uzbekistan. Various researchers have briefly pointed out that Karakalpakstan has the potential to my last by robert browning, claim its independence from of love Uzbekistan (Klötzli, 1994; Baechler, 1998; Lietzman and define development, Vest, 1999). The only weighty study on the subject, Hanks (2000), runs counter to the common belief that Central Asia has become firmly established in its current boundaries. Hanks supports that there are four factors that may contribute to the Karakalpak nationalism, notably: (1) a separate cultural identity; (2) a history of territorial identity and autonomy; (3) economic underdevelopment; and (4) severe environmental damage, resulting in drastic decline in human conditions. Indeed, Karakalpakstan is the only Uzbek province where Uzbeks are not the majority. Unlike Tajiks in Samarkand and Bukhara, the Karakalpaks are allowed to learn in their native language in schools and feelings, 2.6% of the school-age population are enrolled in Karakalpak schools which means that most Karakalpaks are insistent that their children be educated in their mother tongue. And the Karakalpak language is quite different from the Uzbek one being linguistically closer to the Kazakh language just as the whole Karakalpak culture is.

Historically and on The and Recovery, ethnically, Karakalpaks, with their nomadic culture, would show best in Kazakhstan where such culture is of love, persistent and Essay on The, where Karakalpaks are still considered oralman , i.e. Feelings! members of the Kazakh community living abroad. During the past 12 years, as much as 270,000 Karakalpaks, or 20% of the geography, population, left Uzbekistan for Kazakhstan and Russia, largely due to the unbearable human and environmental conditions in the Aral Sea area (Glantz, 2002). Small, van der Meer and Upshur (2001) quote the study showing that 48.8% of respondents wanted to leave their homes because of the environment, and one half of those wanted to feelings of love, move out of the Aral Sea area. In economic terms, Karakalpakstan represents a remote geographical hinterland, absent from global economy, with virtually no industrial development and soaring unemployment rates. Agricultural sector is on the verge of collapse and fisheries, once a profitable sector, disappeared along with the whole Aral Sea. Due to the fact that most imported goods are shipped to Tashkent, 1000 kilometres away from Nukus, capital of Karakalpakstan, fewer goods are offered there, adding to Essay on The Conservation and Recovery Act, the general quality of life being the lowest in the country.

Officially, 100,000 people were unemployed in 2002 as a result of the multi-year drought that began in 1999 and by of love, 2001 reduced cotton production in Karakalpakstan by 75% of the my last by robert browning, norm. Rice production was only 0.25% of the norm (Glantz, 2002). Feelings! The situation aggravated so much that people are slaughtering livestock because animals started dying of thirst. In a region where cattle have implications for the future, killing cows means losing a major asset (Kohn, 2001). All this resulted in the fact that most Karakalpaks began viewing themselves as the environmental victims and hostages of the central power, first in Moscow, then in Tashkent. Why don#146;t Karakalpaks revolt? #150; ponders Bissell (2002). So far, only what can be called #147;a foot vote#148;, i.e. the adrian, exodus of the Karakalpak population to neighbouring Kazakhstan, has happened.

ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official as saying that people of Karakalpakstan #147;#133;are patient and put their hope in feelings of love God and the President#148;. Indeed, an independent Karakalpakstan may be unlikely in the future. On The Conservation And Recovery Act! Poor state of economy and environmental degradation undermined the region#146;s development so much that an independent Karakalpakstan would have a little chance for survival. But this in no way lessens the potential for the region to destabilise Uzbekistan and eventually the whole Central Asia (Hanks, 2000). Possible is also the Indonesian scenario #150; when the central regime grows weak, nationalist claims in the provinces become stronger and may eventually lead to a secession. Northern Afghanistan belongs to feelings, the Amu Darya Basin. Until recently, before the US-led campaign against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda, this area was de facto independent from the rest of the country, remaining firmly under control of the Uzbek and Tajik warlords opposing the regime in Kabul. Today, when the central government of Hamid Karzai is on The Resource Act, trying to spread its authority on the rest of the country, the of love, question of separate northern provinces is less important in light of the emerging Afghanistan integrity. Before 2001, Afghanistan was itself the factor of risk for the Basin.

It is still unclear what share would Afghanistan#146;s agricultural sector require from the Amu Darya water and causes of spanish, when. It is clear though that Afghanistan will demand its share and that it is feelings, entitled to that share under the and effects of spanish american, international agreements signed between the USSR and Afghanistan in feelings 1946 ( Frontier Agreement between Afghanistan and the USSR , 13 June 1946) and 1958 ( Treaty concerning the regime to define, the Soviet-Afghan frontier , 18 January 1958, and feelings of love, Protocol between the game, USSR and Afghanistan concerning the joint execution of works for feelings the integrated utilisation of the Essay on The Conservation and Recovery Act, water resources in feelings the frontier section of the on The Act, Amu Darya , 25 June 1958). The 1946 Agreement subjects all matters associated with the water use to specific agreements between the two countries and provides for the establishment of a joint commission. Under it, Afghanistan is entitled to use up to 9 km 3 of water from the Pyandj river. Under the Treaty of 18 January 1958, the two countries commit themselves to take joint measures to prevent changes in the course of frontier rivers, streams or canals and to correct the effects of such changes and share the feelings of love, costs equally. Furthermore, they commit themselves to prevent water pollution, to Essay Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, exchange regular information on the level and volume of water and meteorological data and to adopt a flood warning system. Feelings! Finally, the 1958 Protocol envisages the joint integrated utilisation of the who wrote, frontier sections of the Amu Darya (Nanni, 1996). Since #147;localisable#148; international agreements (i.e. those relating to identifiable parts of the territory of states) are subject to state succession under international law, these agreements remain in feelings of love force for the newly independent Central Asian states (Nanni, 1996; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). Until now, Afghanistan has used only about 2 km 3 of the 9 km 3 of water it is entitled to causes and effects, use under the treaties. Meanwhile, the of love, Pyandj river has the annual flow of 19 km 3 , and Afghanistan#146;s fresh involvement into the process of by robert water use would radically change the Amu Darya flow if the new Afghan government decides to develop agriculture in of love the North.

Plans of Afghanistan to who wrote the green, increase its water share caused the respective reaction in neighbouring countries. Feelings Of Love! ICG (2002b) quotes one Uzbek official quotes as saying, #147;God forbid that we should give water also to Essay on The Conservation Act, Afghanistan. What will then become of us?#148; Given that the rehabilitation of Afghanistan is impossible without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya and that water resources are vital for Afghan people to feed themselves, the potential for water conflict in the Basin increases proportionally. Afghanistan#146;s demands will have to feelings, be taken into account when negotiating the water situation in the Basin (Fuchinoue, Tsukatani and Toderich, 2002). All Amu Darya Basin countries are considered low-income countries, i.e. Mile! those where GDP is less than $750, according to feelings, the World Bank classification. Below is per Resource Conservation, capita GDP in US$ for the four Amu Darya riparians: Source: World Bank, 2000. Aggregate average GDP per of love, capita for the Amu Darya Basin is $461.3.

Given the extreme poverty people of Afghanistan still live in, this indicator may actually be even less. In political science, overall relations indicate an interstate affect which in turn highly influences regional co-operation over and effects, water. By scoring an feelings of love, affective content of each of 100 events occurred in the relations between the adrian, Amu Darya riparians in 1995-2003, of which only 24 events concerned the region#146;s water resources, it was possible to draw a rough picture of how the Amu Darya Basin countries feel toward each other. For the purposes of this study, an event is defined as the instance of regional conflict and feelings of love, co-operation that occur within an international river basin, and the green mile, water event as the instance of regional conflict and co-operation over feelings of love, water resources of that specific basin (Yoffe, 2001). Every event of interaction between two or more riparians mentioned in Essay a database was grouped and included into either Table I representing overall relations in the Amu Darya Basin or into Table II representing water-related events in the basin (see Appendix for the two tables). Each table contains the following information:

the date of the incident; riparians involved; the intensity of the event, based on the Water Event Intensity Scale (see previous chapter); a summary describing the event; main issue area (economic co-operation, water quality, etc.); the source of information. Three Amu Darya riparian countries #150; Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan - have been considered. Of Love! Afghanistan was excluded from the analysis as until 2001 this country itself manifested a serious threat for the region#146;s security and by the time of preparing this study the central authority in Kabul was still in the beginning of the process of integrating the country. At the same time, northern Afghanistan was far from pacified and heavy fights between local warlords have been reported. It is apparent that overall unfriendly attitude prevails in Essay on The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act the relations between the feelings, riparians and despite friendship agreements signed and close economic ties the situation has repeatedly sharpened when Uzbekistan having the development geography, region#146;s biggest military potential was not long in using force against its neighbours not even trying to enter into negotiation. Of Love! This dangerous trend may as well extend on the water relations, and according to informal sources it already has (situation around the my last by robert, Tyuyamuyun and the Toktogul).

Quite frequently, the relations between the three have become seriously strained and for of love several occasions the countries were on the verge of an open conflict. Once it was an open conflict when on 16 August 1999 the Uzbek planes bombed Tajik and my last, Kyrgyz territory targeting a group of Islamic militants. Uzbekistan#146;s leadership never hesitated to use force and have always been insistent on establishing the way in which events should develop. The country has also followed this course in its relations with Turkmenistan whose self-glorifying regime has much in common with the feelings, Uzbek one. Causes And Effects American! But especially worrisome are Uzbekistan#146;s relations with Tajikistan whose militant opposition has been steadily supported by Tashkent throughout the whole long civil war. Claiming support for the Tajik government, Uzbekistan continued to feed ethnic Uzbek guerrillas on the Tajik territory and opened its borders for them when they were escaping from the Tajik troops. Figure 4.7: Overall relations between the feelings of love, Amu Darya Basin countries (excluding Afghanistan) in 1995-2003. Neither there was a shortage of assurances in eternal friendship and fraternal love, against a chilly history of land mines Uzbekistan used to plant along the entire length of Tajik border to build a ludicrous protection against Islamic terrorists and cutting off the pipes near the Tyuyamuyun reservoir in Resource and Recovery Turkmenistan. The treaties and agreements have been signed as well, but little action followed to implement them. Feelings! Instead, the countries continued with hostile policies. All in all, 4 incidents of #147;small scale military acts#148;, 7 #147;political-military hostile actions#148;, 8 #147;diplomatic-economic hostile actions#148; and 7 #147;strong verbal expressions displaying hostility in adrian interaction#148; have been registered.

In addition, the countries constantly displayed #147;discord in interaction#148; (18 incidents), versus a much smaller number of events considered potentially positive (signing agreements, establishing common policy, visit of head of state, etc.) While the picture of overall relations is definitely skewed to the left and tends to manifest rather conflict than co-operation, the history of relations over water looks at the first glance more co-operative. Figure 4.8: Water-related events in the Amu Darya Basin in 1995-2002. Dozens of agreements have been entered into between the riparians. Some of feelings these agreements had a status of an international water treaty designed to causes american, ease tensions between the basin countries. Meanwhile, the situation remains the same because the leaders prefer to do things informally rather than on feelings, the basis of an open agreement. However, when it comes to addressing conferences and de moxica, summits, the presidents are always ready to mouth the rhetoric of of love regional co-operation while never lingering to the killing, use force against their #147;friendly#148; neighbours (ICG, 2002b).

No new multilateral agreements on water or energy have been signed in Central Asia since 1998 and none are under development now. Major existing agreements like the Almaty Agreement and the Syr Darya Framework Agreement are implemented poorly, largely due to the lack of co-ordination in national water policies and legislation across the region. Some of the feelings of love, Central Asian states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan) have expressed a strong desire to on The and Recovery, develop new agreements that satisfy concepts of international watercourse law. However, there is still reluctance on of love, the part of the major water using countries, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, to enter into causes and effects war, discussions on this issue. One of the major problems in achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of of love international water law. In promoting consensus on principles of regional co-operation, a major role could belong to define development, international donor agencies that may try to of love, convince Uzbekistan and, in causes and effects war case of the Afghanistan situation in the Amu Darya basin, Turkmenistan that this is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon (McKinney, 2003). As discussed earlier, the border problem is among additional factors that could further worsen the water situation in Central Asia. The Soviet-made borders in Central Asia provide a continuous possibility for their redefinition (Gleason, 2001). There were several border incidents between Uzbekistan and its neighbours in the past when the former unilaterally commenced a survey of its border and moved its boundary posts, as happened in early 2000 when three hundred kilometres of Kazakhstan#146;s territory suddenly appeared to be within Uzbekistan.

After Kazakhstan objected, a bilateral demarcation commission was set up. As of early 2003, Uzbekistan#146;s border disputes with Kazakhstan have been completely settled and border delimitation with Tajikistan and feelings, Kyrgyzstan was close to the end. Particular problem in terms of border situation is adrian de moxica, Central Asia#146;s two major rivers. Both Syr Darya and Amu Darya pass through several international borders, and in some parts the Turkmenistan border with Uzbekistan is defined by the watercourse of the Amu Darya. The border between Afghanistan and Uzbekistan is the Amu Darya, and one of the rivers that form the Amu Darya, the Pyandj, serves as the border between Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Toset, Gleditsch and Hegre (2000) define three types of relationship over of love, the shared river resources: river boundary; mixed; and upstream/downstream. While the define development, latter, in the authors#146; opinion, has a higher conflict potential, a river boundary situation, when a country on the left bank diverts water and a country on the right bank retaliates by taking water to its own side of the river, is no less serious.

Navigation problems and transborder pollution add to feelings of love, the problem dramatically. It is argued that the longer the border, the more opportunities for potential contentious issues for the killing conflict. However, there could not be found much evidence to state that sharing a river as a boundary provided the major source of conflict. In the Amu Darya case, a common border lying along the river watercourse may contribute to the generally tense relations both between downstream (Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan) and upstream (Afghanistan/Tajikistan) riparians. Trade issues between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan further complicate the relations between the feelings, two countries. Trade in staple goods like cotton, water, natural gas, and define, oil is conducted by state agencies.

Thus, in case of failure to of love, pay or any other irritation it is very convenient to suspend deliveries temporally, close border or increase visa requirements, as happened more than once. Furthermore, transborder trade, traditional and supporting many families in this area, is subject to now thawing, now frosting regional affairs. No single transborder trade regulatory regime exists between the Amu Darya riparians (Green, 2001; Spechler, 2002). 5.3 Sarez Lake: A natural threat to the basin#146;s stability. On 6 February 1911, a powerful earthquake in the Pamir region of Gorny Badakhshan, in what is now Tajikistan, caused a 2.2 cubic kilometre piece of the Muzkol Range to collapse, sealing off the Murgab Gorge and creating a 500-metre natural dam. The new canyon became soon filled with water and formed the Sarez Lake, 75 kilometres long and 505 metres deep and Essay on The Conservation Act, containing 17 cubic kilometres of glacial water.

Experts say that this unstable natural dam called the of love, Usoy Obstruction after the the killing game, name of a village buried under it could break as a result of an of love, earthquake or landslide and release the water into the Pyandj. This would endanger millions of people in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan. So far, efforts by the Tajik government to install the early warning system components on the dam, along the lake and downstream under the terms of an international tender were sustained locally, without getting other riparians involved. Rather relative stability in the Tajik mountains that still remember a devastating civil war in the 1990s call many good plans in by robert question. Of Love! The weakest point in any strategy concerning the Sarez Lake is funding which might be very significant. Tajikistan alone would never afford million-dollar project costs.

Yet none of the Amu Darya riparians concerned is adrian de moxica, willing to consider the problem of the Sarez Lake its own (Sievers, 2002; Volkov, 2003). With the advent of feelings of love independence, Central Asian states have quickly become the parties, and in some cases ratified, the international environmental agreements and conventions such as the Convention on development, Biological Diversity, the Convention to Combat Desertification, and the United Nations Framework Convention on of love, Climate Change. My Last Duchess By Robert! However, no international convention related in either event to water has been acceded to, even to the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat, not to mention the Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of feelings International Watercourses. Only Kazakhstan is a party to the Convention on Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Sievers, 2002). Vinogradov and of love, Langford (2001) argue that some regional water treaties (the 1998 Syr Darya Framework Agreement) do address the particularly sensitive issue of the water utilisation in the region and the killing game, proceed from the interest in joint use of water resources to seeking common definitions and to acknowledging international legal principles relevant to the use of transboundary water resources, such as the provision referring to feelings, the joint management clause based on the #147;basin principle#148; which provides for game the equality of the parties#146; rights to use and responsibility to ensure rational utilisation and protection of the #147;common and integral#148; water resources of the region. While this provision is certainly an improvement over earlier arrangements based on of love, the concepts of #147;water apportionment#148; and #147;maximum utilisation,#148; the principle of #147;equitable and reasonable utilisation and participation#148;, in accordance with Article 5 of the de moxica, UN Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, should be recognised. This principle takes into consideration such factors as geography, hydrographic, hydrological, climatic, ecological and other factors of a natural character; social and economic needs of a watercourse; the population dependent on feelings of love, the water resources; existing and potential uses; conservation, protection, development and my last duchess by robert browning, economy of water resources use; and the availability of alternatives to a planned or existing use (UN, 1997). Of particular importance for Central Asia#146;s water resources are the principles of the 1997 UN Convention which include the obligation not to feelings of love, cause significant harm to other watercourse states (UN, 1997, art. 7); the general obligation to co-operate through joint mechanisms or commissions (Ibid., art. 8); to exchange information on a regular basis (Ibid., art. 9); and to provide timely notification of planned measures and emergency situations which may have a significant adverse effect upon the green mile other watercourse states (Ibid., arts.

12,28). Where significant harm nevertheless is caused to another state, the party responsible for causing such harm is of love, obliged, in consultation with the my last by robert, affected state, to eliminate or mitigate such harm, and where appropriate, to discuss the question of of love compensation (Ibid., art. 7; Vinogradov and Langford, 2001). However, none of Central Asian countries have ever acceded to the 1997 UN Convention. Broad public participation and access to environmental information are essential in forming meaningful local water and environmental policy. The participation of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) who play important role in informing citizens of their opportunities to participate requires access to accurate and timely information. When the information about the state of the the killing, environment is available to citizens, they can express public opinion regarding various issues, particularly water use and of love, environmental protection (McKinney, 2003). It is not a case, however, for the sealed societies such as Turkmenistan and define, Uzbekistan where access to any information, let alone environmental one, is severely restricted. Feelings Of Love! Not surprisingly, these two states are not the parties to the 1998 UNECE Convention on my last duchess browning, Access to Information, Public Participation and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (the Aarhus Convention), although other three Central Asian countries have acceded to it (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) or ratified it (Kazakhstan). Six indicators used in of love the analysis were not sufficient to identify with exact accuracy a level of adrian potential conflict over water in the Amu Darya Basin, yet some results summarised in Table 5.1 are still evident. Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Rapid institutional development, big water infrastructure projects. · on-going construction of the Rogun Dam. · completion of Golden Century Lake. · possible secession of Karakalpakstan from Uzbekistan. · Afghanistan#146;s demands for water. Potential for conflict over water resources in the Amu Darya Basin remains to feelings of love, be high, despite one of the six indicators (population density) tends to run counter to game, this conclusion.

This allows for the possibility to say that population density can be indicator of conflict only in such overpopulated places as the Ferghana Valley which has already seen outbreaks of violence in the past. On the country level, it is overall unfriendly relations fuelled by the leaders#146; personal competition, as well as rapid institutional change that could account for worsened water affairs in the region. Over the last years, several new points of contention have arisen, particularly in the continuing tensions between Uzbekistan and Tajikistan over the Rogun Dam and between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan around Golden Century Lake. Not in the nearest future though, the potential for further internationalisation - rapid rise of Afghanistan as a state and possible Karakalpakstan#146;s claim for independence - could contribute to feelings of love, these tensions seriously and disintegrate the development geography, basin even further. Of Love! In absence of define geography solid legal base relevant to the international water law and mechanisms responsible for enforcing it, the region#146;s tensions are deepening and threaten to destabilise not only Central Asia, but also neighbouring countries. The role of indicators of water conflict in identifying and, in future, measuring a basin#146;s conflict proneness is critical for those who will be involved in resolving disputes over feelings, river freshwater. The water conflict indicators allow for identifying specific tasks to my last duchess, concentrate efforts on, such as legal and institutional aspects of Central Asia#146;s water disputes, and pinpoint potential #147;apples of discord#148;, such as big water infrastructure projects. 5.7 Conclusions and feelings, recommendations. While wasting water several times more than in the Middle East, people in Central Asia do not account for huge water diversions. In fact, it is agricultural sector and, more specifically, cotton growing that is to Essay on The, blame for the major anthropogenic loss of water from the Amu Darya. Downstream riparians #150; Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the region#146;s major cotton producers, are unable to abandon cotton production because it is perhaps the only hard currency earning sector for them, in feelings the absence of developed small sector regulations and, in case of Uzbekistan, of hard currency convertibility.

With upstream riparians claiming the old Soviet water allocation schemes to be limiting the development of their own agriculture, downstream countries should reconsider their attitudes towards cotton and rice irrigation and embark on a real reform of small and medium sector, including farmland privatisation. Cotton is define geography, a root of evil in Central Asia, not its saviour from hardships of feelings economic underdevelopment. Central Asian governments did not give up their plans to develop the Soviet-style giant projects which are costly and environmentally devastating. The Killing Game! It is fair to say that these would offer only short-term relief and would destabilise already fragile situation. Tajikistan should terminate the feelings, contract with the Baltic Construction Company for the construction of the Rogun Dam. Turkmenistan should abandon the marantic idea of Essay on The Resource Conservation building the feelings, Golden Century Lake which is Essay, being built in the desert where water will simply evaporate. Any idea of diverting Siberian rivers to Central Asia should be immediately shelved as environmentally dubious and hugely expensive. It is feelings, time for Central Asia to think globally while acting locally. Whereas Karakalpakstan is game, unlikely to secede from of love Uzbekistan today, this in no way lessens such a potential for on The Resource Conservation the area in future. Feelings! Sad experience of the former Yugoslavia which continues to break down ten years after the my last by robert, initial disintegration shows that any multiethnic state is prone to sudden and irreversible change in its structure. This is especially indicative of the feelings, former Soviet Union on which territory there are still several unrecognised statelets claiming their independence, and there will be more, as a result of define development arbitrary Soviet boundary planning.

The priorities of people of Karakalpakstan should be taken into account when it comes to the water allocation and use, and of love, a real Karakalpak autonomy enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan should be given to the region. Nonetheless, existing repressive regime in Uzbekistan is very unlikely to loose its grip on the Karakalpaks and tensions are expected to grow. Given that Afghanistan#146;s rehabilitation is by robert browning, unlikely without increasing its intake from the Amu Darya, Afghanistan#146;s water demands will have to be taken into consideration when negotiating the water situation in the Basin. Feelings Of Love! In promoting consensus on principles of game regional co-operation, a major role could belong to of love, international donor agencies that may try to convince Uzbekistan and development geography, Turkmenistan that the Afghanistan situation is a serious problem that must be dealt with soon. Interstate legislative co-ordination for the Amu Darya water resources should be tailored to fit sustainable development of the Amu Darya Basin before proceeding with reconstruction assistance in Afghanistan. Since independence, dozens of of love agreements regarding joint water use have been signed. Who Wrote Mile! However, fewer agreements are implemented.

Lack of regional co-operation in Central Asia has become problem so serious that in environmental terms it has global implications. Fearful of of love disrupting existing patterns of who wrote water use in their agricultural policies, two most stubborn riparians, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan, claimed their commitment to bilateral relations. One of the major problems in feelings achieving regional co-operation in shared water resources in Central Asia will be to attract the attention of these countries to the ideas of international water law and to a multilateral approach. International donor agencies should continue their efforts to bring downstream countries to the round table to discuss the water issues in Central Asia and to press them to drop the projects that could potentially harm their neighbours. That is possible only causes american, if adequate and sufficient information on the environment is available to any party concerned. Unless single information network regarding the state of the environment exists in of love Central Asia, with the reference to the Aarhus Convention, local repressive regimes will be certain about their last word in the never-ending story of Central Asian water crisis. Akmansoy Sandra. 1998. The Killing Game! Aral Sea Water Rights. Online Report No 3, Center in Research in feelings of love Water Resources, The University of Essay on The Resource and Recovery Texas at Austin, available at: http://www.ce.utexas.edu/centers/crwr/reports/online.html.

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1998. My Last By Robert Browning! Central Eurasian Water Crisis: Caspian, Aral, and Dead Seas. New York: UN University Press. Kohn David. 2001. Feelings! Man-made drought wreaks havoc in Karakalpakstan.

EurasiaNet Environment Report: http://www.eurasianet.org/departmnts/environment/articles/eav022601.shtml. Koichiev Arslan. Who Wrote The Green! 2001. Water games could leave Central Asia high and dry this summer. EurasiaNet Environment Report: http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/environment/articles/eav031901.shtml. Landscan Global Population Data Project. 2001. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee: http://www.ornl.gov/gist/landscan/index.html. Lerman Zvi, Garcia-Garcia Jorge, and feelings, Dennis Wichelns. 1996. Land and Water Policies in define development geography Uzbekistan.

Post-Soviet Geography and feelings, Economics, 37(3): 145-174. Lietzman Kurt M. and Gary D. Vest, eds. 1999. Environment and Security in an International Context. NATO Report No 232. Bonn: North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Lonergan Steve, Gustavson Kent and Brian Carter. 2000. Essay On The Resource! The Index of Human Insecurity. AVISO, a publication of The Global Environmental Change and Human Security (GECHS), No 6: http://www.gechs.org/aviso/avisoenglish/six_lg.shtml.

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Proceedings of Essay and Recovery Political Studies Association of the UK annual conference, available at: http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/1998/ohara.pdf. O#146;Hara Sarah L. and Tim Hannan. 1999. Irrigation and Water Management in Turkmenistan: Past Systems, Present Problems and Future Scenarios. Europe-Asia Studies, 51(1): 21-41. O#146;Hara Sarah L. 2000. Central Asia#146;s Water Resources: Contemporary and Future Management Issues. International Journal of feelings Water Resources Development, 16(3): 423-441. Ohlsson Leif.

1999. Causes Of Spanish American War! Environment, Scarcity and feelings of love, Conflict: A study of Malthusian concerns. PhD diss., Department of Peace and my last, Development Studies, University of Göteborg. Olcott Martha Brill. Of Love! 2001.

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TJK president issued a decree on nationalization of power lines and feelings of love, major gas supplies which UZB used to supply power and gas to its Ferghana Valley. Decree had political implications, against a cold spell in causes of spanish relations between TJK and feelings, UZB. TJK and UZB signed an intergovernmental agreement on geography, the development and deepening of economic co-operation; UZB undertook to consider the possibility of reducing the feelings, natural gas prices to TJK in 1996. TJK and UZB signed a deal on natural gas, freight transit and the development of communications links. UZB said it wanted to become another guarantor of the who wrote mile, peace process in TJK, called on feelings, the TJK opposition to search for the consensus with all regions and conflicting forces in TJK. TJK media reported that part of the UZB senior military establishment is supporting the antigovernment forces in TJK. UZB denied media allegations that UZB interferes in TJK#146;s internal affairs, said UZB committed to the principle of non-interference in define development geography domestic affairs of TJK. A group of unidentified attackers infiltrated from UZB assaulted TJK border post; two border guards killed. The first such incident occurred in March. An exchange of fire between the feelings, border posts of TJK and UZB; there were wounded. TJK and UZB officials met to discuss stabilisation of Essay Resource Act political and military situation on the border.

The meeting proceeded in the #147;atmosphere of good-neighbourly relations#148;, against of love continuing TJK allegations that insurgents were supported by UZB. UZB described as false reports saying that militant group came to TJK from UZB, said that #147;UZB, like no other, is interested in the establishment of long-lasting#133; peace and stability in UZB#148;. Phone talks between the presidents; congratulated each other and on The and Recovery Act, #147;fraternal#148; people of TJK and feelings of love, UZB with the New Year. TJK president arrived with one-day working visit in UZB; five documents, including an intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the delivery of goods and gas supplies in 1998 and TJK#146;s national debt. Joint communiqué and agreements on co-operation in public health, culture, humanitarian aid, science, technology and information also signed. UZB foreign minister at his meeting with TJK#146;s president discussed various aspects of regional security and the progress in the implementation of the inter-Tajik peace agreement, the fulfilment of the treaties and causes american war, agreements signed during the visit of TJK president to UZB. Joint statement signed. Meeting of TKM-UZB commission on trade, economic, scientific, technical and of love, cultural co-operation. UZB governmental delegation co-ordinated a mechanism for payment of $24 million debt to the killing game, TKM for 1997 railway and communications services; interest in buying TKM supplies expressed. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

During the Tashkent summit, the presidents adopted a number of documents, including that on the entry of TJK into feelings of love, the single economic space of the green Central Asia, and over 50 projects in of love chemical and oil and game, gas sectors, communications and electrical industries. Feelings Of Love! Agreement on adrian de moxica, setting up of international consortia and accords on formation of securities markets signed. Statement on further deepening of regional integration and the Tashkent declaration on the UN special programme for CA issued. An official appeal to TJK by UZB demands that TJK take effective measures to arrest and hand over to UZB members of Uzbek criminal groups hiding in TJK and trained to carry out terrorist actions in UZB in line with an existing agreement. UZB president said he would do his best to help restore normal life in TJK, opening days of TJK in Tashkent. TJK president also attended. Days of TJK is a confirmation of #147;fraternal co-operation which will lay a solid foundation for eternal friendship#148;, UZB president said. A group of unidentified persons attacked the mayor of feelings TJK town of Tursunzade, killing five and wounding four, and fled to UZB. TJK said it hoped for further co-operation with UZB in tracing and seizing the criminals. UZB president said at the green, a session of UZB parliament he would do everything possible the relations between the two countries remained stable and solid; peace in TJK should be established by political means. In phone talks with TJK president, UZB president condemned recent developments in TJK town of Khodjent, where insurgents attacked government buildings, said those trying to undermine the peace process#133; should realise that UZB#133; is ready to feelings of love, provide necessary assistance#133; UZB will continue to support TJK government.

UZB denied individuals involved in organising antigovernment coup in TJK#146;s Khodjent are now in UZB, described TJK allegations as #147;slander#148;. TJK refuted UZB statements denying its involvement in an attempted coup in Khodjent, called them #147;a deliberate attempt to mislead the world community as regards the true situation#148;, said rebels were trained in Djizak region of UZB and helped by UZB secret services. UZB made a statement calling rumours about the rebels hiding in development UZB #147;groundless#148;. #147;UZB#133; is interested in peace and stability in TJK more than anybody else#133; TJK president#146;s statements are poorly thought-out actions and may lead to serious complications and inter-ethnic discord#133; The Uzbek battalion of the CIS collective peacekeeping forces in TJK left its positions. Official sources have not disclosed the reasons for the sudden transfer of the battalion. An armed invasion of Khodjent was started and supported by UZB, 16 captured attackers announced at a press conference. Military specialists from UZB were the instructors in a planned assault on TJK region. Feelings Of Love! The rebels were trained on the territory of UZB. UZB president made a statement denying his country having a hand in the recent armed mutiny in the killing TJK, said recent statement by TJK president has nothing to do with reality. UZB suspended gas supplies to TJK citing technical causes. Supplies were said to be restarted immediately after repairs on the gas mainlines are over; no date specified.

Economic Co-operation, Security. TJK governmental delegation discussed with UZB government the ways of further deepening of co-operation. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for of love the transportation of cargoes and supply of gas in and effects of spanish american 1999, agreement on feelings, TJK#146;s national debt signed, as well as a protocol adopting practical measures for implementing earlier signed bilateral agreements. TJK president condemned terrorist attacks in UZB capital, Tashkent, expressed his condolences to the families of the victims. UZB unilaterally closed the border with TJK after terrorist attacks rocked the capital.

The border was reopened in a few weeks, after bewildered track drivers protested. UZB president expressed his grievances towards setting up a Russian military base in TJK. Define Development! #147;The neighbouring countries may ask who this base is aimed at#148;, he said. Extremely negative and emotionally excessive reaction of UZB president caused some annoyance in TJK: #147;UZB should finally accept the idea that TJK is a sovereign state and not an autonomous area within its influential neighbour#148;. During the Aral Summit in Ashgabat, the presidents confirmed their mutual interest in bilateral co-operation. UZB foreign minister met with TJK president to feelings, discuss bilateral relations and regional stability. My Last By Robert! Concerning relations between the two countries, minister said, #147;We are ready to solve them on a bilateral basis without mediators and third parties#148;. An intergovernmental agreement on co-operation to combat terrorism, political, religious and other extremism and illegal drugs trafficking signed. When visiting UZB, TJK foreign minister said he couldn#146;t see any problems in UZB-TJK relations, described as significant words of UZB president who emphasized on many occasions that Uzbeks and Tajiks are one people who simply speak two different languages. TJK voiced concern over the presence of about 1,000 Uzbeks who call themselves refugees and who should be disarmed and expelled from TJK as those who are able to bear arms and threaten joint security. New UZB ambassador to TJK stated the feelings of love, leaders of UZB and TJK are ready to effectively strengthen bilateral relations, said it was not correct to raise the question of so-called Uzbek refugees in TJK as there are communities of migrants living in eastern TJK who #147;appeared here as a result of force and who wrote the green mile, propaganda pressure#148;. Unidentified planes bombed targets in north-eastern TJK; no human casualties reported.

About 15 cattle killed. Of Love! UZB official sources refused to comment on adrian de moxica, the incident. Russian sources said the planes involved were Uzbek SU-24 light bombers who allegedly targeted a terrorist group operating in close vicinity of the TJK-UZB border. TJK blamed UZB for bombing and issued a note of protest; said the incident was an #147;unprecedented act#148;, demanded that UZB take #147;undelayed measures to of love, prevent the repetition of such actions that run counter to the principles and nature of relations between the two countries#148;. In the same incident, bombs hit Osh region of neighbouring Kyrgyzstan. In response to a TJK note, UZB officially stated that it #147;does not know anything about the facts of alleged bomb strikes by aircraft belonging to the Air Force of#133; UZB against the territory of#133; TJK#148;. UZB expressed support for TJK#146;s policy towards reconciliation with the opposition, said it would be right #147;to once again request that TJK government destroys the saboteurs#146; bases#133; and evicts#133; the bandits and all those who have not yet laid down their arms and who continue their fight not only against TJK, but also against its neighbours#148;. TJK denied the presence of terrorist training camps in TJK, said those anti-government groups who have remained were ordered to disarm or be destroyed. UZB accused TJK opposition of on The Resource and Recovery Act involvement in recent events in southern Kyrgyzstan, when a big group of Islamic militants tried to enter UZB to overthrow the government, said there were grounds to believe that the #147;bandit formations were backed by TJK opposition#148;. Phone talks between the feelings, presidents discussing regional security and combating organised crime, held in game #147;traditionally frank spirit#148;.

UZB president reiterated UZB position #147;to support TJK policy in issues of democratic reforms and bringing the peace process to a successful completion#148;. Security, Economic Co-operation. United TJK Opposition statement made clear that #147;despite there were no Uzbek opposition figures on TJK territory, UZB decided to launch bomb attacks#133; UZB Air Forces dropped 2 bombs on feelings, Tandikul on Oct 2, 3 bombs on Darai-Chor on Oct 3, 6 bombs on Sultag and 13 on Gushagba on Oct 4#133; raided Nushor and Nushori-Bolo in Tajikabad region and several communities in Garm region, causing loss of the killing game life#133; Such actions undermine the peace process, national reconciliation#133;#148; UZB Foreign Ministry said UZB is prepared to of love, forge closer ties with TJK in the killing game ensuring stability and protecting borders, hopeful the TJK government #147;will comply with its commitments#133; to neutralise the bandit formations which had infiltrated southern Kyrgyzstan#148;; reaffirmed its crucial interest in restoring durable and feelings, lasting peace in#133; TJK. An intergovernmental agreement on mutual payments for the transportation of cargo and supply of gas in 2000 signed. TJK#146;s chairman of the adrian de moxica, State Border Protection Committee condemned UZB for taking unilateral measures to feelings, determine the territorial borders between the Essay on The Conservation and Recovery, two countries by setting up barriers in northern TJK and occupying hundreds of hectares of TJK territory, added establishment of barriers contradicts international law and may sully the of love, relations between the two countries. Mashhad Voice of the Essay on The Resource and Recovery Act, Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. The presidents signed a Treaty of feelings of love Eternal Friendship and a memorandum on define geography, delimitation of the border between the two countries. A joint delimitation commission set up to overlook the delimitation and start talks. A treaty on extradition of criminals and agreements on the exchange of legal information and co-operation in feelings of love forensic testing also signed.

UZB ambassador to TJK was recalled home in connection with the by robert browning, situation in the Surkhandarya Region of feelings UZB where a large #147;bandit#148; group initiated action against government forces. Official TJK stressed commitment to a policy of good-neighbourly relations with UZB. UZB president accused TJK of the connivance with extremists saying that #147;no matter how#133; TJK denies that, we have plenty of facts to confirm the situation. Game! If TJK continues to say that terrorists did not come#133; from territory of TJK, we wiil have to publish official testimonies of the captured and other documents#133; What else is needed for an official announcement of the TJK leadership#133; that terrorists have settled on their territory and they need help to destroy the terrorists and their centres? In that case, I can assure you, both UZB and other CA republics will give the feelings of love, assistance to TJK#148;. Responding to the killing, a proposal by a leading TJK opposition figure to mediate in TJK-UZB conflict, UZB president sharply denounced his help by saying, #147;We have no need of talks or mediation from anyone#148;, did not refrain from such words like wicked, mean, etc, speaking about the candidate mediator. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Visa regime between TJK and UZB introduced, causing concern among transit passengers, traders, etc. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. TJK officially confirmed earlier reports that UZB border guards plant mines along the entire length of the 1,100-km border with TJK to prevent penetration of TJK-based militants, said such actions contradict international laws.

Since the feelings, beginning of the duchess, War of Mines, over 50 people have been killed. TKM and UZB signed intergovernmental tax legislation co-operation agreement; co-operation agreement in the field of transit movement of cargoes by rail; a treaty on the delimitation of border between TKM and UZB. TJK ambassador to UZB filed a note of protest over feelings, the closure of duchess browning border roads to UZB linking TJK villages, said UZB military imposed a ban on the traffic of TJK transport to and through UZB #147;under the pretext#148; of feelings of love preparations for independence anniversary celebrations. UZB Foreign Ministry did not react. Security, Economic Co-operation. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. UZB extended visa-free border-crossing regime for TJK until 1 Jan 2001, in response to the request from the TJK embassy, in connection with mass appeals from TJK citizens returning home after seasonal work. UZB president declared TJK#146;s government must admit it cannot provide security in border areas and identify areas where it is not in control, said UZB would increase the upkeep of the army as it is the only way to maintain peace and my last, stability in the region. Of Love! #147;We must detect threats to our security and effectively protect the country from them#148;, he said.

Phone talks between the presidents to the killing game, follow up the border delimitation treaty and to feelings of love, discuss border guards, customs and sanitary control; focused on the ways to who wrote the green, foster economic partnership and congratulated each other on of love, the 10 th anniversary of their countries#146; independence. Simplification by development geography, TKM of the border crossing regime with UZB. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Phone talks between the presidents focusing on regional security issues, the situation in Afghanistan; underlined the importance of close co-operation in feelings of love efforts to game, ensure regional security, touched on the most pressing bilateral co-operation issues #147;at this stage in feelings the development of relations#148;. During his visit to UZB, TJK president signed a joint statement confirming the presidents#146; #147;true devotion to development of multifaceted co-operation on the principles of equality, non-interference into by robert, internal affairs, mutual assistance, respect for each other#146;s sovereignty and territorial integrity, and peaceful settlement of disputes#148;. UZB prime minister statement: #147;TKM does not understand the seriousness of transporting gas to Ukraine and Russia#133; The only way for TKM to supply gas#133; is through the transit systems of UZB#133;#148; Phone talks between the presidents on joint steps to feelings of love, strengthen border co-operation; agreed to build trading centres for trans-border trade.

Search of UZB embassy by TKM security forces in mile an attempt to find suspects involved in feelings the attack on the TKM president. Protest note by game, UZB following a search of of love UZB embassy in Asghabat. TKM accuses UZB of adrian hiding the feelings of love, leaders of define development geography conspiracy against feelings TKM president in the UZB embassy; UZB insisted on explanations. Armies of the development, two countries had been moved closer to the border; cross-border trade halted. TKM declares UZB ambassador persona non grata and demands that he left the country within 24 hours.

Long-standing dispute over the Kokdumalak oil and gas field settled; the agreement signed to jointly develop the field. UZB set to accelerate the construction of a new railroad to feelings, its southern regions bypassing TKM. Economic Development, Security. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on Co-operation in the Management, Utilisation and Protection of Interstate Water Resources; establishment of the Interstate Council for Aral Sea Basin problems (ICAS).

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the establishment of the International Fund of the Aral Sea (IFAS) Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Presidents met to adrian, discuss environmental problems of the of love, Aral Sea; decided to set up Aral Ecobank to keep money allocated for causes of spanish american joint projects and ensure more economical uses of feelings of love water from the Amu Darya and Syr Darya. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on joint actions for addressing the problems of the Aral Sea, improving the development, environment and ensuring the social and economic development of the region. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. A long-term Concept and a short-term Program for of love the Aral Sea adopted at a meeting of the presidents. The Concept describes a new approach to development of the Aral Sea basin, including a strict policy of water conservation. The Aral Sea itself was recognized as a legitimate water user for Essay on The and Recovery Act the first time. The Program has four major objectives: to stabilize the environment of the Aral Sea; to of love, rehabilitate the disaster zone around the Sea; to improve the management of international waters of the american, basin; and to build the capacity of regional institutions to plan and implement these programs. Wolf-Aral Sea Case Study, TFDD. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Nukus Declaration on the problems of sustainable development of the Aral Sea Basin. UZB and TKM sign a package of 21 co-operation agreements, including an outline political treaty and agreements on border protection, water use, oil exploitation, etc.

Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Almaty Declaration on of love, the creation of Interstate Commission on Sustainable Development and the need of preparation of common Convention on Sustainable Development. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Deputy Prime Ministers of Conservation KA, KZ, TJK, TKM and UZB met to of love, consider financing international fund to save Aral Sea. KA, TKM and who wrote the green mile, UZB will transmit to the fund 3% of their budget revenue, while KZ and feelings, TJK will hand over 1% of state budget revenue. Fund's board also considered present environmental/ epidemic situation in basin of the killing Aral Sea, implementation of national program to supply region with clear drinking water. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. An interstate water resources commission representing these countries decided to set up a Central Asian water and energy consortium; agreed on the common water for energy generation strategy; the installation of the water measuring equipment to control water flow into the Aral Sea; water quotas for every country. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. The summit held behind closed doors discussed prospects for co-operation in feelings of love the communications, transport, aviation and petroleum sectors; also focused on problems of the Aral Sea and duchess by robert, regional security. Joint statement on long-term co-operation signed.

Agreement on feelings of love, Co-operation in the Area of game Rational Water and Energy Use. A number of other agreements signed, including that on restructuring TJK#146;s debts to UZB, on legal aid and of love, co-operation between prosecutor generals, on co-operation and mutual assistance between the security services, on combating crime, etc. Moscow ITAR-TASS World Service, WNC. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on adrian, Co-operation in the Area of Environment and Rational Nature Use.

Talks between the presidents concerning regional security, including the use of the feelings of love, Amu Darya, resulting in signing a communiqué. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Ashgabat Declaration urging more international attention to my last by robert browning, the Aral Sea region. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 1999. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.

Agreement on Co-operation in the Sphere of Hydrometeorology. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan. Agreement on the Parallel Operation of the Energy Systems of Central Asia. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2000. During talks, the presidents described water issue as most pressing topic of current time, rejected OSCE initiative to convene international conference to discuss water issue stating that states should rely on own potential and work at bilateral level. Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Some progress in water issues was made at a recent meeting of of love 5 deputy water ministers in UZB city of Nukus in Karakalpakstan. UZB blamed the adrian de moxica, spread of infectious diseases in the country on the health situation in TJK, where new outbreak of typhoid fever has been registered. UZB Deputy Prime Minister said the water in the rivers flowing into UZB from TJK was a major factor in the spread of infectious diseases and the sanitary and hygienic conditions on the banks of these rivers were appalling. TJK dismissed the statement by of love, saying that no outbreak of typhoid fever had been registered in TJK that year and the water in the Syr Darya river flowing into UZB was monitored constantly, added diseases cannot spread to UZB from TJK simply because UZB banned TJK residents to enter the country without obtaining a permission.

Water Quality, Health. Mashhad Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, WNC. Agreement on Co-operation in the Area of Rational Water and Energy Use in 2002. Intergovernmental talks on the rehabilitation and joint management of the Karshi pump station cascade; development of the development geography, Kokdumalak oil and gas field; agreement on of love, settling the mutual arrears of TKM and game, UZB firm and feelings, interaction between the two railway networks reached.

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ABC#8217;s #8216;Bachelor in Paradise#8217; to Resume Production But Lawyer Vows to Continue Investigation. ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by producers found no misconduct by cast members during the feelings of love shooting of the show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. Duchess Browning! That decision was quickly blasted by an attorney for of love, cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate investigation that is ongoing. #8220;As we previously stated, we recently became aware of allegations regarding an incident on the set of #8216;Bachelor in define, Paradise#8217; in feelings of love, Mexico,#8221; Warner Bros. said in causes war, a statement. #8220;We take all such allegations seriously. The safety, security and well-being of the cast and feelings of love crew is game, our number one concern, and of love we suspended filming so that the allegations could be investigated immediately and thoroughly. Our internal investigation, conducted with the and effects american assistance of an outside law firm, has now been completed.#8221; Warner Bros., whose Warner Horizon Television banner is home to the #8220;Bachelor#8221; franchise and its spinoffs, said new procedures would be implemented to strengthen the feelings rules about conduct among cast members, who are sent off to a resort in Mexico for production of the adrian de moxica dating show. Production was shut down earlier this month amid allegations that Olympios and fellow cast member Demario Jackson had a sexual encounter that was complicated by heavy drinking. Idris Elba Sets Up 1980s Comedy for of love, Sky. Leak Suggests Sonos#039; New Voice-Controlled Speaker Will Be Called Bootleg (EXCLUSIVE) #8220;Out of Essay Resource Conservation and Recovery Act respect for feelings, the privacy interests of those involved, we do not intend to adrian release the feelings of love videotape of the incident,#8221; Warner Bros.#8217; statement continued. #8220;We can say, however, that the tape does not support any charge of misconduct by a cast member. Nor does the causes of spanish american war tape show, contrary to many press reports, that the feelings of love safety of the green mile any cast member was ever in jeopardy. Production on this season of #8216;Bachelor in Paradise#8217; will be resuming, and feelings we plan to implement certain changes to the show’s policies and procedures to enhance and further ensure the safety and security of all participants.” Martin Singer, attorney for Olympios, said the misconduct allegations surrounding the who wrote show were broader than those involving Olympios. “It needs to be made crystal-clear that production of #8216;Bachelor in Paradise#8217; was shut down because of multiple complaints received from feelings, #8216;BIP#8217; producers and de moxica crew members on the set.

It was not shut down due to any complaint filed by feelings of love, Corinne against anyone,#8221; Singer said in a statement. My Last Duchess! #8220;It comes as no surprise that Warner Bros., as a result of its own internal investigation, would state that no wrongdoing had occurred. Our own investigation will continue based on multiple new witnesses coming forward revealing what they saw and heard.” #8220;We appreciate the swift and of love complete investigation by causes and effects of spanish american war, Warner Bros. into feelings allegations of misconduct on the set of de moxica #8216;Bachelor in Paradise,'#8221; an of love ABC spokesperson said. #8220;Given their results, the series will resume production, and will air this summer on ABC.#8221; Production on adrian de moxica, Season 4 of the ABC reality series was shut down due to the alleged misconduct. Contestants Jackson and Olympios were allegedly involved in a highly sexual situation under the influence of alcohol while #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; cameras were still rolling. TMZ reported that Olympios did not consent to sexual contact with Jackson. Both Jackson and Olympios retained attorneys following the of love incident. Olympios released a statement last week saying, #8220;As a woman, this is my worst nightmare and it has now become my reality. The Killing Game! As I pursue the details and facts surrounding that night and the immediate days after, I have retained a group of professionals to ensure that what happened on June 4 comes to light and I can continue my life, including hiring an attorney to obtain justice and seeking therapy to begin dealing with the physical and emotional trauma stemming from that evening.#8221; Jackson also released a statement last week. #8220;It#8217;s unfortunate that my character and family name has been assassinated this past week with false claims and malicious allegations. I will be taking swift and appropriate legal action until my name is cleared and, per the advice of legal counsel, will be seeking all available remedies entitled to me under the laws,#8221; he said. Feelings! Leak Suggests Sonos#039; New Voice-Controlled Speaker Will Be Called Bootleg (EXCLUSIVE) #039;American Horror Story#039; Recap: The Cult Masks Come Off in #039;Holes#039; CBS Fires Legal Exec Over Las Vegas Shooting Comments. Italian Director Sebastiano Riso Victim of Homophobic Attack.

Idris Elba Sets Up 1980s Comedy for Sky. ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by adrian de moxica, producers found no misconduct by cast members during the feelings of love shooting of the show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. That decision was quickly blasted by geography, an attorney for feelings, cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate [] #039;American Horror Story#039; Recap: The Cult Masks Come Off in #039;Holes#039; ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by producers found no misconduct by cast members during the my last duchess by robert browning shooting of the show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. That decision was quickly blasted by an attorney for cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate [] Poll: Which of These Classic Sitcoms Should Be Revived? ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by producers found no misconduct by feelings, cast members during the shooting of the american war show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. That decision was quickly blasted by an attorney for cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate [] #039;Finding Your Roots#039; Season 4 Premiere Reveals Larry David and Bernie Sanders are Related. ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by producers found no misconduct by cast members during the feelings shooting of the show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. That decision was quickly blasted by an attorney for cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate [] HBO#039;s Richard Plepler on my last duchess by robert browning, #039;Confederate#039; Controversy: #039;We Screwed Up#039; ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by producers found no misconduct by cast members during the feelings shooting of the show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. That decision was quickly blasted by an attorney for cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate [] Why #039;Handmaid#039;s Tale#039; Creator Picked Tom Petty#039;s #039;American Girl#039; to End the Season.

ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by producers found no misconduct by cast members during the shooting of the show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. That decision was quickly blasted by an attorney for game, cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate [] TV News Roundup: Syfy Acquires All Seasons of #039;Futurama#039; ABC#8217;s #8220;Bachelor in Paradise#8221; reality series will resume production after an investigation by of love, producers found no misconduct by cast members during the shooting of the show#8217;s fourth season earlier this month. That decision was quickly blasted by an attorney for cast member Corinne Olympios, who said that new witnesses were coming forward in a separate [] Las Vegas Shooter Reportedly Wanted a Room Overlooking Zappos-Sponsored Life Is Beautiful Festival. Larry David And Bernie Sanders Shocked To Find Out Theyre Related On Finding Your Roots American Horror Story: Cult Recap: You Are the the killing Weakest Link, Goodbye. Kevin (Probably) Saves the World: The Shows Unique Premise Owes Inspiration to Jewish Mythology. Copyright 2017 Variety Media, LLC, a subsidiary of Penske Business Media, LLC.

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Inside Instagrams Long Guerrilla War on Pornand the Users Who Keep Coming Back. T here is feelings of love, something zen about scrolling through photos of thousands of penises, all standing at attention, rows and rows of adrian thumbnails of erections of all colors, each captured for the camera in feelings, varying states of throb. The downside to that calm, however, is getting caught absentmindedly browsing all that dick. Which is exactly the position I found myself in while at brunch with a group of friends a few weeks ago. Why am I looking at dicks. one shrieked after peeking over at Essay on The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act my phone, while pushing her eggs benedict as far away from feelings of love me as possible, like genitalia was contagious.

I offered the table a reasonable explanation: that a corner of Instagram had become a flourishing nude-sharing community, that it was managing to thrive despite the adrian de moxica companys staunch dedication to scrubbing errant body parts from the site, that, oh for gods sake, hadnt they heard of the term Eggplant Fridays, where users share photos of their penile bulges? Even after swearing that I wasnt really looking at the penises as much I was looking for a specific penisone whose owner had posted it for feelings of love fun, who wasnt trying to sell me a cam site membership (How can you tell the difference? You just can!)my friends remained unplacated. I realized that no matter how much I tried to explain, they wouldnt realize how mundane the penises actually were until they had spent some time scrolling. As for me? After a month of trying to understand the mile deep rift between Instagram and its, um, headstrong streakers, I had gotten used to them. I ts not just penises that are taking Instagrams backchannels by storm, its all manners of sexy bits: 15-second jerkoff videos, exposed anuses, a bevy of braless breaststhe latter of which are sometimes part of of love a highly politicized battle to Free the Nipple on the photo-sharing app. Though nudity is banned by Instagrams community guidelines, a cottage industry of illicit hashtags has sprung up to find and share these photos, everything from the more mundanely-phrased #seduced and #exposed for broad nudity, to the community-specific tags such as #femdomme and #daddydick, intended more for kink. And thats saying nothing of the droves of cleverly-punned tags such as #eggplantparm, which may turn you off Italian food for quite some time. These naked photos are so ubiquitous that Ive yet to Essay on The Resource and Recovery Act, search a kink that hasnt pulled up at least a few steamy selfies.

But as many porn hashtags as there are, many more have been quietly erased by Instagram, revealing nothing when you search for them. Feelings! Pop in duchess, #sex and youre told No posts found. Ditto #adult, #stripper, #vagina, #penis, #cleavage. Even the Internets ultimate innuendo, the eggplant, wasnt safe. You can still tag your posts with banned hashtags and emojis, but good luck finding your community within. Typo-laden tags have popped up to accommodate these arbitrary bans: #boobs is gone, but as I write this, #boobss has well over 600,000 posts; #adults spinoff #adule is quickly closing in on 100,000. The tag for #seduce may now be useless, but variants like #seduced and feelings #seductivsaturday cropped up in its placethough its worth noting that in the weeks since Ive been writing this article, #seductiv, the tag that brought me into this world to begin with, has vanished entirely, as has #boobss, #adule, and #eggplantparm, after BuzzFeed caught wind of the the green fact that the eggplant emoji was not searchable on feelings the app. The goalposts on these hashtags have moved considerably: In 2012, Huffington Post reporter Bianca Bosker wrote about Instagrams early porn community, but back then, the banned hashtags were far more intuitive: #instaporn, for instance, or #fuckme. Instagrams puritanical and of spanish war often gender-biased stance towards stark nudity and the more nebulous moral boundaries it imposes on its members is feelings of love, nothing new. Since their launch in 2010, the app, which is open to use for anyone aged 13 and above with a valid email account, has been constantly battling the de moxica problem of how to feelings of love, keep the community as open as possible while also protecting its members from adrian de moxica things deemed unsavory, like naked body parts. Facebook, which paid $1 billion to acquire Instagram in 2012, deals with similar issues and has a robust content moderation team dedicated to eradicating porn, violence, and other offensive content. But Facebook has one marked advantage over Instagram when it comes to feelings, regulation: Your Facebook friends are usually just that your friendsand the causes and effects american war chances of seeing a random strangers post, much less an errant nude body part, are incredibly slim.

While public groups do make the chances of seeing an unknown users content slightly possible, search functionality on feelings of love Facebook is still primarily limited to users within your network. On Instagram, anybody who makes their profile public can end up in a search. The battle for Instagrams virtue garnered national attention in the summer of 2014, when Rihanna found her Instagram account temporarily disabled after she posted topless photos featuring nipples. Scout Willis and the killing game Miley Cyrus, whose nipple photo had also been deleted, teamed up with the creators of feelings a film, whose name became the hashtag for the movement, Free The Nipple, and adrian continued to post photos flouting the ban. Feelings! Comedian Chelsea Handler took a similar tactic, posting topless photos of herself side-by-side with unbanned photos of topless men, like Russian president Vladimir Putin, to protest the discrepancies. While #FreeTheNipple has precious little to do with porn, it has shined a light on development geography Instagrams guerrilla war on nudity and other offensive content. But its less a decisive battle and more a fruitless cat-and-mouse game, as Instagram has barely determined themselves what crosses the line, even under this months overhauled terms of service.

Though the company finally granted users the right to feelings, share breastfeeding photos without being banned (a mitzvah previously reserved only for define development geography works of art), they still enforce subjective bans on things like stretch marks and menstrual blood. Instagram does ban a few non-illicit hashtags as well; #iphone was blocked briefly in 2013 and feelings #ilovemyinstagram still is. Co-founder Mike Krieger argued back in 2012 that certain tags were too generic and didnt provide end-user value. (Instagram declined to comment on adrian this story.) But that logic is part of the feelings problem: While banning drug use, child pornography, explicit violence and my last the like can all be understood, Instagram is feelings of love, still positioning itself as the arbiter of what is acceptable to share, and what doesnt provide end-user value. While Instagram says its bound by the app stores nudity restrictions and that their guidelines are intended to make the platform safe for even its younger users, their scrubbed hashtags bring up a larger issue about censorshipnamely, whether Instagram should foist morality onto its 300 million users. T he owners of those dick pics livening up my brunch dont appear to give a shit about of spanish any of this. Their photos arent adorned with any #freetheeggplant hashtags. Their captions dont reference politics or gender equality or moral purity. So why, if Instagram has gone out of its way to make it clear to nude photo sharers that theyre not welcome, do these users keep coming back? Social media is a really good way to connect sexually and relationally to others that are outside of feelings of love your social world, says Chris Donaghue, a psychologist and and effects of spanish american author of Sex Outside the feelings Lines: Authentic Sexuality in a Sexually Dysfunctional Culture . Donaghue advocates strongly for porn to geography, become more acceptable, and often encourages his patients to explore their sexuality through platforms like Instagram so they can find out of love that their proclivities may not be as niche as they thought. The most beautiful thing is technologys use for shame reduction and acceptance of self, he says. Yet the phenomenon of sharing porn openly and development brazenly is not a byproduct of feelings our current tech revolution; pornographys history has long been rooted in group settings.

Viewing pornography was, at certain points in define geography, time, much more of a communal, shared experience, rather than a private activity, says Lynn Comella, a professor of feelings gender and american war sexuality studies at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. A century ago, stag films were often screened in dudely gathering places like country clubs or fraternities. And during porn's golden era in the 1970s, seeing an x-rated film was a media event. It was only after the feelings advent of the VCR, and then the Internet, that pornography reverted back to a private pastime. Last year, Sharif Mowlabocus, a media studies lecturer at the University of define geography Sussex, told the Guardian that the rise of videotape was responsible for forcing porn underground. The videotape took porn off the street, out of the feelings movie theatres and into the intimate and domestic spaces of the home, he said. Now, thanks to mobile devices, its at my last by robert browning once stealth and of love ubiquitous. And like most Internet porn, the quality and nature of Instagram smut varies widely. A majority of duchess it is from aggregation accounts that cull photos of naked peoplegenerally womenseemingly out of benevolence, and of love those soliciting money, usually by directing voyeurs to the users personal webcam site. All the accounts photos are no older than a few hours at most, likely due to the fact that accounts featuring nudity are reported by de moxica other users and banned by of love Instagram almost as quickly as theyre created. For users who are trying to direct followers to their personal sites, Instagram makes sense. Reddit is too heavily moderated, and Tumblr too time-intensive, to be good platforms for Essay Resource Conservation and Recovery spambots and those looking to make a quick buck on nudes.

For the aggregators, what better place to go than a platform of 300 million people, all of feelings of love whom are on the app already because, on Essay some level, they like sharing their lives? But among the of love hustlers and larger-scale pornographers is a sliver of individual users who simply want to share their nudes for a variety of personal reasons: fun, horniness, boredom, a desire to duchess by robert browning, connect. These users are harder to feelings of love, find but very much there, often sharing just a handful of geography photos of of love themselves, with captions instructing other users to either direct message the poster or contact them on Kik, a messaging app that's quickly become synonymous with sexting strangers, as users' personal contact info isn't automatically shared. For a casual voyeur, these distinctions may not matter: A vagina is a vagina is a vagina, after all, whether that vagina was photographed and uploaded by its owner or by a quasi-paid porn site looking for new members with credit cards. But for all the diehard users I spoke with, Instagram isnt just about voyeurism and getting off to causes of spanish american, sexy photos of strangers. Feelings! Its a conduit for finding your people. As 19-year old Andrew* puts it: I dont go on Instagram looking for nudes, [Im] mainly trying to find Kiks, he tells me over Kik. When Im not horny, I dont like the idea, but when I am, I just want to sext if I cant have sex. He laments the proliferation of posts just pointing to other porn sites; hed rather connect with an actual person. For users who are posting their own photos on Instagram, the appeal isnt far off from Andrewsit all still boils down to seeking validation and adrian de moxica connection from like-minded individuals. I use Instagram because a lot of people are on there, and people like our stuff, 18-year old Rih explained to feelings of love, me over Kik, about the account she shares with two friends. We started with three followers, now we have 415. Rih, along with her friends Lily and Eve, had created their first Instagram account, though theyd previously been posting nudes on geography Tumblr. When I first discovered the account, their bio featured a photo of Lilys breast, with an feelings of love introduction: Were Lily, Eve Rih. Welcome to our page, just DM us dont ask, on private because people are reporting us. The 29 photos the girls had posted were all from the who wrote mile last hour, and of love featured the causes and effects of spanish three ladies in various states of nudity: some scantily clad, others completely nude, still others showing the of love women mid-masturbation.

Save for one photo of my last by robert Rih and Lily laughing on a set of gymnasium bleachers, the photos were all faceless. Each photo had upwards of 10 to 15 catch-all hashtags, including #eggplantz, #eggplantparm, #eggplantraww, #adule, #seduced and #daddydick. As the account amassed followers at a rapid clip, the trick became ensuring that their fan base could be maintained and of love grown without landing on the radar of Instagram. Adrian De Moxica! The girls later updated their bio to of love, read that their account would be public only three minutes each day. They also implored users who stumbled across their page by accident to block, rather than report them. It gets annoying, Rih lamented, about posts that had been deleted without warning. If you dont like nudes, dont click that hashtag. Dont follow that page. Her precautions and frustrations are not unique. De Moxica! The majority of the nude Instagram accounts Ive been scrolling through contain similarly-worded caveats begging fellow Instagram users to take pity on them. Though lacking the stridence of the #freethenipple, theres a real sense of community protection here, a shared mein kampf against what these amateur pornographers view as unnecessary censorship from an arbitrary technological overlord.

But the of love question remains: Why not stick to the significantly more accepting communities of Reddit and Tumblr, or even the newer knockoff apps dedicated solely to porn, such as Uplust or Pinsex, that welcome your community with open arms? The irony is who wrote the green mile, that as actively as tech powers-that-be try to keep deviance off Instagram, its the platforms tech power that brings these naked sharers to Instagram over more accepting corners of the feelings of love Internet. Reddit and Tumblr can be accessed via mobile, but smartphone posting is far more laborious than on geography a laptop (as Rih and friends discovered). Instagrams onboarding process is much easierpoint, shoot, postand cameras, Instagram and feelings of love Kik are all on one device that goes anywhere its user goes. Ramon*, a 28-year-old from Rhode Island with a particularly impressive penis, says hes had both photos pulled and define geography profiles banned by Instagram, and yet has rejoined under various handles several times. Feelings Of Love! All you need is an email [address] and you open an adrian de moxica account. Its simple, he says. Ill do it when Im bored. These straightforward reasons start to make sense when you consider how many Instagram users are under 30.

Fifty-three percent of its users in feelings of love, 2014 were adults 18 to adrian, 29 years old. Of Love! Fifty-six percent of all teens in America use Instagram, and 91 percent access the Internet from development geography a mobile device. And as it turns out, a lot of those teenagers like sharing nudesa fact I first learned the hard way after a 14-year-old direct-messaged me an unsolicited photo of feelings of love his penis from an Instagram account of otherwise fully-clothed photos of the and effects of spanish american teenager with his family and feelings friends. Click on one of the Conservation and Recovery Act many penises and feelings breasts available under nudity-filled hashtags and de moxica its not at all uncommon to see a bio that proudly boasts that the user is feelings of love, 16 or 17, and looking for other kids their age to connect with. Causes American War! Teens were so ubiquitous on even the most hardcore hashtags that it became a Herculean task just to keep their naked flesh at bay, lest the line between reporter and feelings of love child pornographer become blurred. Instagram is the most popular app for teens, after Facebook, says Amanda Hess, a reporter who regularly covers Internet culture, teens and the killing game sexuality (and dutifully investigated the feelings origins of Eggplant Fridays in Slate). Adrian! People end up wanting to share sexy photos, or look at them, in a place where they're already hanging out.

They don't want to download some special porn app. She, too, credits Instagrams user-friendliness as a major reason why teens share their nudes on Instagram. Its privacy settings are a lot more intuitive than on Facebook, Hess says. Facebook has a thousand privacy settings, and feelings of love they're always changing and adrian de moxica you never know what pictures show up to outsiders. Feelings Of Love! Instagram is just open or locked. And unlike with Facebook, Instagram protects anonymity. You can create some screen name that your parents don't know about, and you don't have to add your grandparents and your cousins and your mom's boss. Of course, as with any sexual communique, consent is everythingand when teenagers are involved, the water gets murky. As Hanna Rosin pointed out when investigating a teen sexting ring in Virginia last fall for who wrote The Atlantic , sharing nudes, even by choice, isnt without its potential consequences. As the deputy sheriff of Louisa County, Virginia told her, Possessing or sending a nude photo of a minoreven if its a photo of yourselfcan be prosecuted as a felony under state child-porn laws. BuzzFeeds Katie Notopolous ran into feelings of love similar issues while trying to my last duchess by robert, investigate the deluge of unsolicited dick pictures she was receiving on Snapchat, often from teenagers. (The best BuzzFeeds legal team could offer her was that she probably would not end up in of love, jail.) Still, in its purest, mutually-desired form, sharing nudes on apps like Instagram has the potential to help teens healthily explore and define development geography develop their sexual identities. And regardless of age, it can be surprisingly liberating.

W hereas it used to of love, take a stiff drink and my last breaks every 20 minutes to work my way through the porn archives of Instagram, I now can flit through gracefully. Though some photos are decidedly sexy, theyre no longer stigmatized for feelings me, no longer something to frantically clear from my Instagram history. Even as a voyeur, I now feel a part of the group, so much so that I was reticent to put their hashtags on blast, lest I send the robust community further underground. Then again, Im not very worried, given the tenacity of users like Rih and Ramon. While Instagram continues to clear out porny hashtags with an ever-increasing ferocity, dedicated users will simply get more creative. (This weeks up-and-coming tags, which will inevitably be gone by the time you read this, just like all but one of the hashtags mentioned above: #aaaasssss, #seducee, #becauseboobs, #freakshit.) Though these amateur porn producers may not be concerned with politics, free speech advocates and nude art aficionados could learn a thing or two from the Instaporn communitys quiet refusal to back down. On The Resource Conservation And Recovery Act! Regardless of the feelings users political leanings, users like Rih and Ramon are living, breathing examples of how to stick it, hard , to censorship and limits on sexual freedom. Instagram now finds itself in the killing game, the crosshairs of being on the wrong side of feelings history, and who wrote mile it may behoove them to surrender a losing fight.

For now, Ramon plans to keep coming back for more, even if he has to feelings, continually create new accounts to the killing game, do so. Feelings! He may be apolitical, but when it comes to Instagrams assessment of porns negative end-user value, he begs to differ. When you have thousands of the same hashtags, he says, you realize youre not the only one who enjoys doing it. *Not his real name. Illustrations by the killing game Bill Rebholz. Beejoli Shah is a writer based in Los Angeles.

Her work has appeared in SPIN, New York Mag, The Guardian, and other publications. You can reach her on feelings Twitter @beejoli, but please, no underage dick pics.