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Article 38 of the statute of the Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay, International Court of Justice(ICJ). Scandal Essay? Extracts from Australian and Life Survey Essay this document. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND INSTITUTIONS M07914 COURSEWORK NAME: JACQUELINE YEE-BING, LEE STUDENT NUMBER: 01228801 NUMBER OF WORDS: 895 In relation to Article 38 of the statute of the GM Foos Scandal, International Court of Justice(ICJ), Schwarzenberger. Adult And Life Skills? defined; 'In order to enable the coldmist widow, World court to apply any asserted rule of international law, it must be shown that it is the and Life Essay, product of one, or more, of Business three law creating processes.'1 These processes are; treaties, international customary law, and the general principles of law recognized by Australian Literacy Survey civilized nations. References to judicial decisions or to the teachings of highly qualified publicist are secondary sources of Comparison and Contrast of 19th Century international law. Adult Survey Essay? However, in accepting that there is coldmist widow, a material and formal distinction between the and Life Skills Survey, sources of law, it is reasonable to assume that there is some form of hierarchy within the medon odyssey, Article 38 as the Adult, sources cannot be equally important.

Treaties are of growing importance and the 'maids-of-all-work'2 in help international law. Adult And Life Skills Essay? Often, they resemble contracts in GM Foos national system of law, but they also perform functions, which in national systems, would be carried out by Acts of Parliament. The only distinction between a 'law-making treaty' and a 'contract-treaty' is Australian Adult and Life Skills Survey Essay, one of Transactions Essay content. However, there had been argument as to Australian Adult and Life Survey whether treaties are a formal source of Art: law as opposed to Adult Literacy Survey simply being a source of obligation. Fitzmaurice explained through reference to the principle pacta sunt servanda3 (Gabcikovo-Nagymaros4 Case), there is an Reflection on Studies at the University antecedent general principle of law5 that the obligation must be carried out, but that the and Life Essay, obligation is not, in itself, law. Coldmist Widow? . read more. Adult Skills Essay? In effect, this is what creates a hierarchy of the of 19th Century, sources of Australian Literacy and Life law. When a treaty comes into force, it will overrides customary law as between the parties to the treaty (Wimbledon Case)12.

States make treaties because they regard the Art: Comparison and Contrast Century Art Essay, relevant rules of customary law is inadequate. However, treaties can come to an end through desuetude13, which often takes the Australian Adult Literacy Skills Essay, form of the Beings: Mutilations Throughout The World, appearance of a new rule of customary law, conflicting with the treaty. Australian Adult And Life Survey? The only difference between treaties and custom is one of type, treaties representing an express agreement and Scandal Essay custom characterising an Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay implied agreement. About People? . General principles is the third source of law, where principles that are common to Literacy and Life Survey all or most national systems of law is used to fill the holes in stereotypes black international law. Today, it has come to Australian Adult and Life Skills Survey Essay regulate certain contracts made by stereotypes about people individuals or companies with states or international organizations such as, contracts of Australian Adult Literacy Essay employment in international organizations. Treaties and customary law contain limited rules applicable to such topics and the gap has been filled by recourse to general principles of Business Transactions commercial and Australian Survey Essay administrative law, borrowed from The Real Essay national legal systems. However, it is Australian and Life Skills, important to how did vertical help steel business note that treaties and Australian Adult Skills Survey Essay custom prevail over general principles of law in the event of conflict.

Nevertheless, there may be other hierarchies based on other grounds as in Business Transactions Essay Hulsroj article14, who thinks general principles of law is a better source of law than customs. . Adult Skills? read more. Essay? * Sir Robert Jennings and Sir Arthur Watts, eds., Oppenheim's International Law, 9th ed. (London: Longman, 1996). Australian Adult Literacy? 1 Schwarzenberger, The Inductive Approach To International Law (1965) 2 Akehurst's Modern Introduction To International Law-1997 Routledge p.37 3 Art. 26 Vienna Convention On The Law Of Treaties. 4 Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Case (1997) ICJ Reports, (1998) 37 ILM 162 5 Fitzmaurice, Expression of coldmist widow Consent to be Bound by Australian Literacy a Treaty as Developed in Certain Environmental Treaties in Klabbers and Lefeber, eds., Essays on the Law of Treaties (1998), pp. Proprietorship Transactions Essay? 59-80. 6 Rosalyn Higgins -Problems and Process, Ch 2 7 Right Of Passage over Indian Territory, International Court of Justice (ICJ) Rep. 1960, p6 8 North Sea Continental Shelf Cases, ICJ, Rep.

1963, p.3 9 Asylum Case, I.C.J. Australian Adult And Life Skills Survey? Rep. 1950, p.266 10 Anglo-Norwegian Fisheries Case, I.C.J. Rep. 1951 p.116 11 Lotus Case, P.C.I.J. Transactions? Rep., ser. A, No.10 (1927) 12 Wimbledon Case, P.C.I.J. Adult And Life? Rep.,Ser.

A, No.1 (1923) 13 Desuetude - a term used to describe the situation in which the treaty is consistently ignored by on Studies University one or more parties, with the acquiescence of the other party or parties. 14 Hulsroj, Peter - Three Sources - No River .A Hard Look at the Sources of Public International Law With Particular Emphasis on Custom and ' General Principles of Literacy and Life Survey Law' Austr. JIL 54 (1999), 219 15 Nicaragua Case (Military and Paramilitary Activities in at the University Essays and against Australian and Life Skills Essay, Nicaragua) (Nicaragua v. Reflection Essays? The United States) Case (Merits), ICJ. Rep. 1986 16 Rosalyn Higgins, Problems and Process: International Law and Literacy and Life Skills How We Use It (Oxford: Clarendon, 1994) . read more.

This student written piece of how did vertical help steel work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree English Legal System section. Australian And Life Essay? Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Business Essay? Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related University Degree English Legal System essays. Australian Adult Survey? Case Note on coldmist widow, Belgium v Spain [1970] ICJ Rep. 4: Barcelona Traction Case: Its . Australian Adult Literacy And Life Survey? company representing foreign capital, the general rule of international law authorized the national State of the how did integration help business, company alone to exercise diplomatic protection for the purpose of Adult Literacy Skills Essay seeking redress. No rule of international law expressly conferred such a right on the shareholder's national State. What is the status of the precautionary principle in International Law? a practice containing very small amount of evidence of its harmlessness to the environment.11 Evidently, the Comparison and Contrast of 19th Century, emergence of new environmental law regulations respectful to Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills the precautionary principle brings the subject to a new era of evolution. It strengthens the non-binding nature of medon odyssey most environmental treaties and Adult and Life Skills Survey Essay further narrows the gap between policy making and implementation. Discuss the stereotypes about, origins of international law by examining a number of theories, which have . Therefore, logically, if the Australian Adult and Life Skills Survey, rules concerned did not in stereotypes about people ultimate analysis issue from Australian Skills a sovereign authority, which was politically superior, or if there were no sovereign authority, then the rules could not be legal rules, but rules of moral or ethical validity only. possibility that the complainant might not pursue the Art: Comparison and Contrast, complaint a good reason, nor a belief by Australian Adult Literacy and Life Survey the solicitor that the vertical help the carnegie, suspect will be charged whatever he says.

The kind of Australian Adult Essay circumstance which may most likely justify silence will be such matters as the coldmist widow, suspect's condition, or his inability genuinely to. Article 38 was drafted seventy years ago, to guide the PCIJ to Australian Adult Essay be a . Art: Comparison Century Art Essay? The weight then accorded to a state in terms of Australian and Life what it does is stereotypes people, far greater than what it says. The idea of modern custom is Australian Literacy Skills Survey Essay, different from Art: Comparison and Contrast of 19th Art Essay that of traditional customs in Australian Skills that the former, emphasizes opinio juris while the latter emphasizes state practice.3 Modern custom in Extraterrestrial Mutilations Throughout The World contrast with. Australian And Life Skills Essay? However, the Bar Council Complaints Disciplinary Findings lists a total of integration help the carnegie twelve barristers who have already been disbarred this year (up to Adult and Life Survey and including 2 November 2006)30. While these figures are never the less alarming, the number of disbarred. The International Court of stereotypes black people Justice (ICJ) is Australian Survey Essay, one of the medon odyssey, six principal organs of Australian Adult and Life Skills . of legal views or of the interests between two persons.'11 It is coldmist widow, essential to Adult and Life Survey note that for the dispute to how did help the carnegie steel be 'legal' or 'jurisdiciable' it must be one competent of legal analysis and for Australian Literacy Essay a dispute to Extraterrestrial Beings: and Abductions arise, there must be evidence of Australian Skills disagreement. To what degree of Beings: Cattle Mutilations Throughout harm should Article 8 protect the right of the Adult Skills, individual . It was established above that questions concerning an individual's right to on Studies at the Essays consent to harm could be considered under Article 8(1). If one is to use Article 8 to protect that 'consensual right' then one must find a way to present the 'allowed interference' as being outside the certain prescribed conditions of Australian Adult and Life Skills Survey Article 8(2). of how did integration student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Australian Literacy and Life Survey Essay Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest?

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Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey Essay

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ACT/SAT Essay Prompts and Sample Essays with Comments Grades. ACT and SAT essays are scored on a scale of 1 to Adult Literacy Survey Essay 6 (6 being the Proprietorship best) by at least two graders. Skills Essay! The scores are then added together for a final composite score. If the GM Foos Essay scores of the graders differ by more than one point, then a third grader grades the essay, providing a score which is then doubled to compute the final composite score. The following are examples of ACT and SAT essays written by our students and the comments they received from our Expert On-Line Essay Graders. All essays are graded according to the College Board and ACT essay scoring rubric. Review sample essays, critiques, and grades. As you read the passage below, consider how Paul Bogard uses evidence, such as facts or examples, to support claims; reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence; and stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion, to add power to the ideas expressed. Adapted from Skills Essay Paul Bogard, “Let There Be Dark.” ©2012 by Los Angeles Times. 1 At my family’s cabin on a Minnesota lake, I knew woods so dark that my hands disappeared before my eyes. Black! I knew night skies in Australian and Life Survey which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars.

But now, when 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way, I worry we are rapidly losing night’s natural darkness before realizing its worth. This winter solstice, as we cheer the days’ gradual movement back toward light, let us also remember the irreplaceable value of darkness. 2 All life evolved to the steady rhythm of bright days and dark nights. Today, though, when we feel the closeness of nightfall, we reach quickly for a light switch. Medon Odyssey! And too little darkness, meaning too much artificial light at night, spells trouble for all. 3 Already the World Health Organization classifies working the Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay night shift as a probable human carcinogen, and the American Medical Association has voiced its unanimous support for coldmist widow “light pollution reduction efforts and glare reduction efforts at both the Adult Literacy and Life Essay national and state levels.” Our bodies need darkness to produce the hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep. Sleep disorders have been linked to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and depression, and recent research suggests one main cause of coldmist widow, “short sleep” is “long light.” Whether we work at night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in Australian Adult and Life our lives. 4 The rest of the world depends on darkness as well, including nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, insects, mammals, fish and reptiles. Some examples are well known—the 400 species of birds that migrate at night in North America, the sea turtles that come ashore to lay their eggs—and some are not, such as the bats that save American farmers billions in pest control and the moths that pollinate 80% of the world’s flora.

Ecological light pollution is like the bulldozer of the medon odyssey night, wrecking habitat and and Life Skills disrupting ecosystems several billion years in the making. Simply put, without darkness, Earth’s ecology would collapse. . . . 5 In today’s crowded, louder, more fast-paced world, night’s darkness can provide solitude, quiet and Essay stillness, qualities increasingly in short supply. Every religious tradition has considered darkness invaluable for a soulful life, and the chance to witness the universe has inspired artists, philosophers and everyday stargazers since time began. In a world awash with electric light . . . howwould Van Gogh have given the world his “Starry Night”? Who knows what this vision of the Literacy and Life Skills night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? 6 Yet all over about black people the world, our nights are growing brighter. In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year.

Computer images of the United States at night, based on NASA photographs, show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey, light. Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Medon Odyssey! Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark nights. Even the Adult and Life Essay northern lake where I was lucky to spend my summers has seen its darkness diminish. 7 It doesn’t have to be this way. Light pollution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and GM Foos Essay shielding existing lights.

Already, many cities and towns across North America and Europe are changing to LED streetlights, which offer dramatic possibilities for controlling wasted light. Australian Literacy Skills! Other communities are finding success with simply turning off portions of Proprietorship Business Transactions Essay, their public lighting after midnight. Even Paris, the famed “city of light,” which already turns off its monument lighting after 1 a.m., will this summer start to require its shops, offices and public buildings to Australian Literacy and Life Essay turn off lights after 2 a.m. Though primarily designed to save energy, such reductions in light will also go far in addressing light pollution. But we will never truly address the problem of light pollution until we become aware of the irreplaceable value and beauty of the darkness we are losing. Write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved. In your essay, analyze how Bogard uses one or more of the features listed in the box above (or features of Extraterrestrial Cattle and Abductions, your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of his argument.

Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Bogard’s claims, but rather explain how Bogard builds an argument to persuade his audience. Paul Bogard’s “Let There Be Dark” employs a wide range of rhetorical techniques to Australian Survey craft one important message: humans must initiate efforts to preserve natural darkness before darkness’ extensive list of benefits is permanently lost. Bogard’s argument is Proprietorship Transactions, built upon his appeal to the broad spectrum of benefits offered by natural darkness, including those pertaining to health, the environment, and the economy. Utilizing outside sources to back the validity of these benefits, Bogard completes his message with a tone of hope, imploring his audience to join him in and Life his course. Bogard begins his argument with a personal anecdote to juxtapose his personal experiences with the beauty of darkness against the modern trend of children never witnessing true natural darkness. His powerful image of “woods so dark that [his] hands disappeared before [his] eyes” captivates his audience with a striking visual. Also, Bogard’s use of the medon odyssey statistic of “8 of 10 children… never know[ing] a sky dark enough for Australian Literacy Skills Survey the milky way” reinforces the sense of urgency for preserving darkness that he builds through out the passage.

After opening with his sensory story, Bogard pivots to assemble the bulk of his argument, barraging the reader with examples of the benefits of darkness. His first piece of evidence involves the health benefits of natural darkness, particularly its role in about black preventing cancer. After beginning his point by including the support of two highly reputable health organizations, the Australian Adult Literacy Skills Survey WHO and GM Foos Scandal AMA, to provide a sense of validity to his argument, Bogard highlights the benefits of Adult Literacy and Life, darkness and a good night’s sleep. He then moves from the health of humans to the health of nature and the natural environment. Appealing to a desire for stereotypes ecological preservation, Bogard lists animals that depend on darkness, then explains the critical role these animals play in Australian Essay our lives, such as bats that assist in pest control and moths that polinate the world’s flowers. The utilization of the simile relating light pollution to “the bulldozer of the night” encapsulates the destructiveness of light pollution that Bogard wishes to convey. Bogards next piece of evidence revolves around the Proprietorship Business Transactions Essay economic benefits of darkness preservation. First using NASA as a source for backing the rate at which darkness is being lost, Bogard’s logic of excess light being “wasted energy, which means wasted dollars” provides the reader with a simple benefit of reducing light pollution: saving money. After stringing together his extensive range of benefits of preserving natural darkness, Bogard turns to the future, Including current efforts for preservation such as those in Paris.

His final line completes his argument with his original appeal, that to the “beauty of the Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay darkness”. Overall, Paul Bogard’s argument is carefully constructed, consisting of support from a wide range of sources, examples of the many benefits of darkness, and coldmist widow the interweaving of techniques such as similes to embellish his argument. Overall, this excellent essay displays that the writer did a very close reading of Bogard’s essay and understood the central ideas as well as the interrelation of Australian and Life Survey Essay, ideas as Bogard builds his argument. The student discusses most of the persuasive and stylistic elements Bogard uses, with a few exceptions—paragraph 5 is never addressed, which addresses the more meditative, soulful aspects of darkness: for example, as a source of inspiration for art (Van Gogh’s “Starry Night”). Medon Odyssey! Although the Literacy and Life Skills Essay use of a simile is noted, the almost magical language Bogard uses to describe a night sky (“meteors left smoky trails across sugars spreads of stars”) could have been explored in more depth. Finally, the student quotes fairly effectively from the text to support his claims. In terms of analysis, the medon odyssey two main weaknesses in this essay are the Australian Adult and Life omission of the analysis of about black people, paragraph 5 from Bogard’s essay and the student’s lack of analysis in Australian Adult Literacy and Life the second-to-last paragraph (beginning with “After stringing together…”) about why Bogard turns toward the future. It’s not enough just to say that the author “turns to Business Essay the future.” What is his purpose in doing so? What effect does that have on Skills Survey the reader? What emotion is he trying to tap in on Studies University the reader? This second-to-last paragraph consists of just two sentences and Australian Literacy Essay basically paraphrases rather than analyzes.

This student displays an excellent command of language and is very adept at guiding the reader through most of the salient points in Bogard’s essay. There is a precise central claim presented in the introduction and a fairly strong conclusion. There is a lot of sentence variety, and the student’s word choice and tone strike the Beings: The World right chord for a formal essay. Australian And Life Survey Essay! Transitional phrasing is used effectively between paragraphs and to bridge ideas. A few typos appear in the essay that don’t detract from meaning (e.g., in the first sentence, possessive form should be “darkness’s”; in paragraph 2, “throughout” is one word; in paragraph 3, the correct spelling is medon odyssey, “pollinate”; in the first sentence of paragraph 4, the possessive form is “Bogard’s”; in Adult and Life Survey Essay paragraph 5, “Including” should not be capitalized). In our modern day society we think of light polution as a side effect of living. However, Paul Bogard makes the compelling argument that light polution is actually destroying our sleep. Bogard takes from NASA and other trusted organizations to prove his point, though not all of Bogards refrences are strickly based on information. Proprietorship Business! Bogard tells stories of sleeping under starfilled skies during his childhood. These nostalgic stories bring out emotion in readers, causing them to rethink their stances.

Bogard uses facts, figures and emotions to build a touching and compelling argument against light polution in our society. The human body is not a machine that can function perfectly during both night and day. In the thrid paragraph of Paul Bogard’s essay “Let There Be Dark,” it is stated that the lack of darkness can lead to cancer. “Our bodies need darkness to produce the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay hormone melatonin, which keeps certain cancers from developing, and our bodies need darkness for sleep.” (3) Without darkness, the body cannot sleep. Some people have tried to Extraterrestrial Cattle and Abductions Throughout work around that fundamental rule, but failed.

Bogart brings up the Australian Adult Literacy Survey Essay point that a lack of sleep can cause some sevear medical problems, such as: depression, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Read big, threatening words like diabetes and depression are enough to snap any reader into Reflection Essays attention. fear always has, and always will be a great motivator for Australian Adult Literacy the human race. Reflection On Studies University Essays! Bogard uses these threatening medical facts as a way to grab the reader’s attentions through their emotions. There is Australian Literacy and Life Survey Essay, constant talk of how our society is medon odyssey, ruining the Australian Literacy and Life Essay world, and themselfs, through technological advancements. Black! In the seventh paragraph of “Let There Be Dark” Paul Bogard mentions that light polution is not an unstoppable force.

“Light Polution is readily within our ability to solve, using new lighting technologies and Australian Literacy Essay shielding existing lights.” (7) Bogard brings up his ideas on Proprietorship Transactions Essay how to stop the light epidemic. Australian Literacy Essay! Rarly do you find someone ready with well thoughtout ideas to solve the very problem they are complaining about. Bogart proves to his readers that he is more that just a man with hatred rooted inside of him. Instead, Paul Bogard is coldmist widow, a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him. Bogard gains the trust of his readers, by showing them there is a way to fight the light epidemic. As more advancements are made by our society more problems arise as well. For the most part, technological advancements have made day to day life easier Though, our day to Australian Literacy and Life Skills Survey day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet. It can be hard for the average person to understand how technology is coldmist widow, affecting our planet. Paul Bogard tries to explain to the public the new challenges we face, in a comprehensible way. In the third paragraph of “Let There Be Dark”, Bogard explains how we keep ourselfs from Literacy and Life Skills sleep by spending too much time on technology.

“Weathe we work at at the University Essays, night or simply take our tablets, notebooks and Australian Literacy Skills Essay smartphones to bed, there isn’t a place for this much artificial light in our lives.” (3) Nowadays, almost everyone obtains some sort of “smart” device that they like to use before bed. Breaking down problems into everyday life is what makes them understandable to the public. Bogard is Reflection at the University Essays, able to connect with his audience by Skills Survey Essay using everyday examples for Reflection on Studies University Essays his argument. Most members of the average public are not science or english majors. It is important to realise that when making an argument, even everyday people should be able to understand. Australian Adult Literacy Skills! Paul Bogard perfects the idea of medon odyssey, crafting an complex argument that is easy to understand. Adult Literacy And Life Essay! By making different thoughts and ideas more accesible, more people can join in on changing the world. This essay shows some understanding of the original text but lacks a strong thesis to really hook ideas onto.

The writer starts off by saying the Scandal Essay author’s argument is Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey, that “light pollution is destroying our sleep,” but, by the end, the Extraterrestrial Beings: Mutilations and Abductions The World student is down to “more people can join in on changing the Adult Skills Survey Essay world,” which shows that he’s lost the thread of the argument in an effort to use evidence from the text. Coldmist Widow! Although it has a few strong quotes, the Australian Literacy and Life Skills Essay explanations tend to drift into vagueness: “big, threatening words;” “Instead, Paul Bogard is a man who ready and willing to solve the problems that lay before him.” (this is an empty platitude and says nothing about the text); “our day to coldmist widow day lifes have also been filled with countless arguments of how we are ruining our planet” (filler; off topic to the essay). Additionally, the introduction gives an example of an emotional appeal to Australian Adult Survey Essay which the essay never returns. The writer should avoid giving examples in the introduction; he can list the types of techniques the author uses to do his job but should wait for the body for the examples. In terms of Reflection University, formatting, the student does not need to start a new paragraph before every quotation. Most of the very short introductory paragraphs can lead right into Literacy and Life Survey Essay the quotes that follow without a paragraph break. People! Transitions between the paragraphs need some work; the essay jumps from one idea to the next. The essay could benefit from phrases like “in addition,” “another technique the author uses,” or “in the next few paragraphs of the passage.” “Pollution” is Adult and Life Survey, misspelled every time. A writer should be extra careful about medon odyssey correct spelling of words used in the prompt. “Themselfs” and “ourselfs” should be “themselves” and “ourselves.” The write should have left time at Australian Literacy Skills Survey, the end to read over coldmist widow his essay and Essay check for minor errors. READING: 2, ANALYSIS: 2, WRITING: 3. critiques, and grades. Parental Expectations Based on Gender.

For every 10 Google searches about boys being overweight (Is my son overweight?) there are 17 about girls (Is my daughter overweight?). For every 10 Google searches about medon odyssey daughters being gifted, (Is my daughter gifted?), there are 25 for boys (Is my son gifted?). This recent study of Australian Literacy Skills Essay, Internet search data suggests that parents may hold different expectations for Reflection University their children based on gender; it appears that parents may be want their girls thinner and their boys smarter. The data on the search is accurate, but is the explanation? Do parents hope for Adult Literacy Skills Survey different things for Essays their sons and daughters? Read and carefully consider these perspectives. Adult Skills Survey! Each suggests a particular way of thinking about parents' expectations of their children. Even though parents are more worried more about black people their daughters being overweight than their sons, it doesn't mean they want less for their daughters. They just realize that kids can be crueler to girls than boys when it comes to weight.

Because teachers are more likely to recognize giftedness in girls than in boys, who can appear to be less studious in school, parents aren't searching about girls. Boys are often underestimated in the classroom, so parents have to Australian Skills Essay pick up the slack. As a whole, parents hold different standards for black their kids based on gender, but it's not done consciously. Since society places so much pressure on girls to be thin and boys to be smart, those stereotypes get absorbed without the parents knowing it. Write a unified, coherent essay in which you evaluate multiple perspectives on Adult and Life Survey parents' expectations for their children based on gender. In your essay, be sure to: analyze and evaluate the medon odyssey perspectives given state and develop your own perspective on the issue explain the relationship between your perspective and those given. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. Whatever the case, support your ideas with logical reasoning and detailed, persuasive examples.

You may wish to consider the Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay following as you think critically about the task: Strengths and weaknesses of the three given perspectives. What insights do they offer, and what do they fail to consider? Why might they be persuasive to Business Transactions others, or why might they fail to Adult Skills Survey Essay persuade? Your own knowledge, experience, and Reflection on Studies at the values. What is your perspective on this issue, and what are its strengths and weaknesses? How will you support your perspective in your essay? Parents may expect things from their children, depending on their genders. Genders have become stereotyped and it leads people to have expectations for each one of them. Sometimes, parents expect these things so that their child could be happy, but it could make the child upset and feel unwanted. Society can put so much pressure on a girl’s weight and Skills Survey Essay a boy’s intelligence that parents start to take in these thoughts.

The pressure and expectations on a girl’s weight differs from the Extraterrestrial and Abductions Throughout pressure on boys. Parents only expect girls to Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay be thinner to stereotypes avoid seeing their daughter get bullied. Peers can be more harsh to fat girls than they can be to fat boys. Because of this, parents might force their daughters to Australian Adult Essay excersize more or eat less. These kind of treatments from society and medon odyssey parents could lead to Adult and Life Skills Survey anorexia or depression, even if the girl may not seem fat. Proprietorship Essay! I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only pay attention to themselves. Having different expectations about weight, boys have another quality that concerns parents. Seeming less studious in class, parents underestimate their sons and Adult Literacy and Life push them to do better. Teachers can see intelligence in girls because of their behaviour in class.

The stereotype that boys do not behave as well as girls in class leads teachers to think that boys do not seem very smart. Parents could see this too, but they may not consider how the teacher treats their students. Stereotypes About Black! I think people should not judge someone’s intelligence based on their behaviour. There are many people who are very smart, but they may also like to have a good time. Expecting one’s son to do better in school could lead to stress and anxiety. Australian And Life Survey! It is the stereotypes and pressure from society and peers that adds to the expectations from parents.

Parents can absorb thoughts from others without realizing it. Their standards start to and Abductions hurt the child because of what peers think. The child could develop depression, but the parent would not realize because they are too focused on the standards. Parents should take the time to talk to their child and Literacy figure out any problems the The Real child faces. Parents tend to put pressure on their children because of the Australian Adult Survey way society thinks of coldmist widow, fat girls and boys who have low grades. Australian Literacy Survey Essay! Parents want girls to be thin to avoid having the girls hurt, but it only leads to Reflection at the more trouble. A boy’s intelligence is pushed by parents so much and it becomes a bigger problem. These are because of the way one’s peers thinks, and the ideas start to be pushed into other people’s heads. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. Overall, this essay discusses the issues presented in a fairly simplistic way and does not analyze the issues in depth or put forth the writer’s own viewpoint in a cohesive way. Adult Literacy And Life! Each perspective is touched on, but the analysis of the third perspective especially veers off track because it focuses more on discussing one possible repercussion (depression) of pressuring one’s children (both genders) rather than focusing on stereotypes about whether parents hold gender-based expectations.

The final paragraph doesn’t feel like a conclusion, and the final sentence digresses into talking about peers rather than parents. Stay on message. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. There is some attempt on the part of the writer to develop his ideas (e.g., that parents’ pressure on children to maintain a healthy weight could lead to eating disorders or depression, and that boys’ seeming less studious is not necessarily a true indicator of their actual intelligence), but the reasoning is also simplistic at times: e.g., “I don’t think anyone should care about the weight of anyone. People should only pay attention to themselves”—this statement is too extreme and Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey Essay doesn’t take into account the parental duty of monitoring their child’s health. The essay uses a five-paragraph structure—an intro, three body paragraphs discussing each of the three perspectives, and a conclusion. There is very little attempt to transition between paragraphs or to link or contrast perspectives. Each body paragraph seems to stand alone. There are some grammar errors: a dangling modifier in the 1 st sentence of the about black 3 rd paragraph, subject/verb agreement error in Australian Literacy Essay last sentence of 3 rd paragraph.

A few typos, but they don’t distract from meaning—here are the correct spellings: behavior, exercise, stereotype. More generally, some word choices could be more precise (“may expect things” and “parents expect these things”—what things?) or more sophisticated (“parents start to take in these thoughts” and “ideas start to Business Essay be pushed into other people’s heads”). Avoid wordiness. There are too many instances of Australian Adult and Life Skills, vague pronouns or pronouns that don’t agree with the Proprietorship Business Transactions Essay antecedent. More sentence variety is Adult Literacy Skills Essay, needed—too many start with “Parents…” The overall tone of the essay is appropriate. I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and are more influenced by todays society. The Real GM Foos Scandal Essay! It’s evident in our everyday lives that girls and boys are held to different standards. We see these different standards on magazines, tv, and in everyday interactions.

When you pick up a magazine it’s usually a model who has the “perfect body”; the Australian Survey perfect body in todays society is someone who is thin and tuned. We also see the Transactions standard for boys to Adult Literacy and Life Survey Essay be smart in stereotypes about black people our everyday interactions. It’s mainly men who dominate the math and science fields, and those two subjects are seen as harder than English and Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey Essay social studies. Also, even though times have changed it’s more common and “acceptable” to have the man at GM Foos, the house be the main provider. To be the main provider you must have the better job, which in theory if you have the better job you are smarter. Parents want the best for their kids so they unconsciously hold their children to Adult Skills Survey Essay different standards based on Scandal society. As stated above today’s society places great emphasis on girls being thin. From even before your child is born they are already being prejudiced based on their gender. If your expecting a girl you automatically decorated your childs room pink, princesses, ballarinas; a “girly” room. So as your little girl is growing up, she already has expectations if she looks on her walls she will see princesses and ballrinas on her walls, and of course they are all thin; nno has ever seen a “fat” princess or ballarina? So even before they have time to think for themselves they have a preconcived idea about what they should look like.

This “perfect image” continues on all throughout their lives; on billboards, magazines, and t.v. all the girls are thin and pretty. Girls don’t consider all the photoshopping that took place in Adult and Life Survey Essay order to produce that image. All they are focused on is what they can do to look like that. And since parents are influenced by these images they will do whatever they can to facilitate their child “living up” to that image. In parents eyes they are helping that child if she is worried about her weight because if she’s thin she automatically won’t get picked on and will have great self esteem. Just like girls boys are held to different standards too, however these standards vary.

Unlike girls, boys are held to higher academic standards. As your son is stereotypes people, gowing up he will probably see more men in Adult Literacy Survey Essay charge than woman. In America’s society it is medon odyssey, still expected that men will be the Literacy and Life Skills C.E.O’s at companies, bosses, and the man in charge of the house. Medon Odyssey! So it isn’t a surprise that while raising your child you emphasis these standards. You want your child to be happy and successful.Therefore you will pressure the idea that boys should be smart, and obviously boys should be smarter than girls. Adult Literacy Skills! This idea is not done in a cynical way, in medon odyssey fact it’s quiet the opposite. Parents don’t mean to belittle their daughter, or any girl, by assuming their son is smarter, they do it subconsciously to coinside with societies standards. Boys are expected to Australian and Life Survey Essay excel in the harder subjects in school, like math and science. Essay! All parents just want whats best for Literacy Skills Essay their kids so they will pressure their son to GM Foos Scandal do better in school. Before a child is born the parents will place them in appropiate stereotypes, however this is not done consciously. Parents already know societies expectations, so they will subconsciously inforce these stereotypes on the children.

Parents are not cynically trying to oppress their children by placing them in sterotypes. Instead they are looking out for their children. Australian Literacy And Life Skills! It’s a harsh and critical world in todays society. So the more your child is conforming the medon odyssey less problems your child will have. No parent wants their child to stand out negatively or get picked on Australian Literacy Skills Survey so they see it has in medon odyssey their childs best interest to have them match up with societies expectations. Although the writer addressed point three, she neglected to address points one and two. Failure to address all three points will not result in a high scoring essay; the writer must find some way to include the other two points in her argument. The ACT essay is Australian and Life Survey, not simply a persuasive essay but an argumentative essay. The writer should consider how she would argue these points if she were doing an in-class debate. The whole essay is spent defending why parents adhere to stereotypes. Are there parents who don’t?

Why don’t they? Is every girl focused on her looks and uninterested in math and science? Do all mothers stay home? The writer could improve her analysis and support scores by broadening her response and thinking about the other side of the issue. The essay is coldmist widow, organized with a clear introduction and conclusion and sufficient transitions, but it contains many language errors.

Comma splices and semicolons need to be reviewed (e.g., the Australian and Life Essay first sentence: “I agree with perspective three, parents do hold different standards based on gender, however these standards are subconscious and on Studies University Essays are more influenced by Australian Skills Survey Essay todays society.”) as well as possessive apostrophes (“todays society,” “childs room,” or “societies expectations”). Medon Odyssey! “Ballerina” is spelled three different ways and “quiet” was written instead of “quite.” The writer should leave time to reread her essay and Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay check for these small errors. IDEAS AND ANALYSIS: 3. DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT: 3. Essay Prompts used with the medon odyssey permission of Summit Educational Group, College Prep Tips, Study Hints, Education News for the Parents and Students in the Philadelphia Area. Sign up to Australian Literacy and Life Survey Essay receive weekly article updates . Improve your odds of a better SAT or ACT score today! Find out more about GM Foos Scandal Essay our test prep and skill builder programs. To reserve your personal tutor, contact us today! Main Office/Mailing Address: 505 York Road, Suite 6.

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ANCIENT CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. ANCIENT CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Ancient China is one of the most remarkable civilizational phenomena ever known. It gave birth to a number of inventions and Australian and Life Survey Essay discoveries, which are still used in our times, including compass, porcelain, silk, gunpowder and many others. This paper is to examine the most prominent issues of medon odyssey, ancient Chinese science and technology. It will focus on Adult Literacy and Life agriculture, engineering, mathematics, astronomy and medicine. Need essay sample on at the University ANCIENT CHINESE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. Ancient Chinese economy was based on Australian Adult and Life Survey agricultural production. It was a river civilization so the Chinese began to build dikes to control the annual flooding. Later this allowed to begin rice farming.

Their fertilizing allowed them to use the fields year after year, without the need to allow it to lay fallow. Medon Odyssey. In the sixth century BC the Chinese began growing crops in rows, which has not been practiced in and Life Skills Survey western world until the eighteenth century. One of the evidence was the Master Lu#8217;s Spring and Autumn Annals. It tells us: “If the crops are grown in rows they will mature rapidly because they will not interfere with each other#8217;s growth. The horizontal rows must be well drawn, the vertical rows made with skill, for if the The Real GM Foos Scandal, lines are straight the wind will pass gently through”[1]. By the fourth century BC the Skills Survey, Chinese government authorities started to Cattle, promote a frame-plow. Australian Adult Literacy And Life Survey Essay. It was the first to have adjustable strut which regulated the plowing depth by altering the Reflection at the, distance between the blade and the beam. Also the Chinese approached towards winnowing grain to separate out husks and stalks from the grain after harvest and Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey Essay threshing. Stereotypes People. The grain has been thrown up into the air, preferably in a strong wind, so that the chaff is blown away while the grain falls down to the ground. Later, winnowing baskets were invented allowing to separate the heavy grain from the chaff, which is gradually tipped over the edge of the basket, leaving the grain behind.

Later still, the winnowing sieve was introduced. By the Australian Literacy Skills, second century BC, Chinese invented rotary winnowing fan[2]. When plow farming technologies were brought into Holland and England in the seventeenth century from China, they sparked the The Real Scandal, European agricultural revolution, and it is believed that European agricultural revolution brought up the Industrial Revolution. So, the Chinese technology paid a great contribution into rise of the West. Outstanding Chinese engineering achievements are being applied in the whole world.

Though Chinese were not the first to make steel in the 2 century BC, they did invent two exclusive steel production processes: taking the carbon out of cast iron, and Australian Adult melting wrought and cast iron together to make something in The Real between which was steel. New types of steel were used the steel mostly in the weapon making such as new swords, new crossbows, and some in Australian Adult and Life Survey the agriculture tools parts. One of the inventions of greatest utility which has spread from China throughout the Scandal, world, so that its origins are no longer realized, is the square-pallet chain pump consisting of an endless circulating chain bearing square pallets which hold water, earth, or sand. According to some historical articles, it has been applied since first century BC. Such chain pumps were effectively used in agriculture, and construction, as well as mining industry, where another outstanding technology has been developed a drilling method to drill boreholes up to 4800 feet deep. The size of Chinese drilling equipment was remarkable with derrick up to 180 feet above ground, tubes for extracting 130 feet long.

The main problem was usually to Australian Survey, break through hard rocks, and Chinese boreholes made it possible to drill up to on Studies at the University, dozens feet into depth of firm ground. A drill would be suspended by bamboo cables from a derrick. Invention of cast iron provided mighty drilling bits. The later development of Australian Skills Survey Essay, belt-drive in the 1 century BC allowed to transmit power from one wheel to another, and produce continuous rotary motion. Mutilations Throughout. Also, driving-belt was essential for the invention of the spinning-wheel. The belts could now run not only Australian Adult and Life Essay round normal wheels with rims, but also round rimless wheels. The driving-belt was apparently imported to Europe as part of the coldmist widow, technology of quilling-wheels and spinning-wheels introduced into Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey, Italy by travelers returning from China. Flat belts and wire cables as driving-belts in Europe only began to be used in Extraterrestrial Mutilations and Abductions The World the nineteenth century. Mathematics and physics. Adult Literacy Skills Survey. Chinese mathematics was defined by Chinese in ancient times as the #8220;art of calculation#8221; (suan chu), and it was both scientific and spiritual practice.

The first true evidence of mathematical activity in China can be found in numeration symbols on tortoise shells and flat cattle bones (commonly called oracle bones), dated from the Shang dynasty (14th century B.C.). In fact, the numeration system applied in the modern world originated 34 centuries ago in China. The need for mathematical calculations appeared for Business Transactions development of the calendar, flood-control measures, administration, and so on. To facilitate the and Life Skills Essay, calculations they invented a wide variety of at the University Essays, mechanical aids like counting boards, and wrote numerous mathematics texts to aid them in mathematical calculation. They also discovered a concept of zero. Together with the Greeks the Chinese came to idea of irrational number pi. It expresses the ratio of the circumference of Literacy and Life Survey, a circle to its diameter, a relationship which cannot be framed in terms of whole numbers. The value of pi was computed by Archimedes to three decimal places, and by Ptolemy to four decimal places. But after that, no greater accuracy was achieved in the Western world for Proprietorship Business Essay 1450 years.

The Chinese, however, made great strides forward in computing pi. In Greece Archimedes decided that pi had a value between 3.142 and 3.140. Liu Hui of China was thus able to Australian Survey Essay, calculate a value of pi of 3.14159. At this point, the Chinese overtook the Greeks[3]. Algebra and geometry developed independently. Today it would be hard to imagine such a situation, however, once those sciences were not connected, and Extraterrestrial Beings: Throughout The World the first people to Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills, use them together, expressing geometrical shapes by Proprietorship Business Essay equations, were the Chinese. A Chinese book of the third century AD called the Adult Literacy Skills Survey Essay, Sea Island Mathematical Manual gives a series of medon odyssey, geometrical propositions in algebraic form and describes geometrical figures by algebraic equations. The first European who adopted those methods from the arabs, who, in turn, studied them from the Chinese, appears to Australian Survey, have been Leonardo Fibonacci, who in his Practica Geometriae of 1220 used algebra in solving geometrical problems relating to the area of a triangle.

Later Pierre Fermat and Rene Descartes developed the principles of analytic geometry. Another famous European, who seems to stereotypes about black, have been outrun by his eastern colleagues was Isaac Newton, who formulated his First Law of Motion in the eighteenth century. It stated that #8220;every body continues in its state of rest, or of uniform motion in a right line, unless it is compelled to change that state by forces impressed upon Australian Literacy Skills Essay it.#8221; Joseph Needham#8217;s researches have now established that this law was stated in China in the fourth or third century BC. We read in the Mo Ching: #8220;The cessation of motion is due to the opposing force #8230; If there is no opposing force #8230; the motion will never stop. This is as true as that an ox is not a horse.#8221; The book Mo Ching is the collection of writings of a school of philosophers called Mohists, after their founder and sage Mo Ti (more oftrn known as Mo Tzu, which means #8220;Master Mo#8221;). The Mohists disappeared completely from Chinese history after only a moderate time, and most of The Real Scandal, their writings remained unread and almost forgotten until recently. Their brilliant scientific insights were also largely lost, and Australian Adult Skills Essay made very little lasting impact on later Chinese history. The Mohists were also the only ancient Chinese to medon odyssey, consider the subject of dynamics in the theoretical sense, though practical dynamics was continuously applied in Essay the great strides made by Chinese technology and invention[4]. Astronomy truly is an ancient science in China.

In fact, mankind#8217;s first record of an eclipse of the coldmist widow, Sun was made in China in 2136 BC. The initial interest to that what was in the skies has been shown by the Chinese to study phenomena, influencing their agrarian cycle. Literacy And Life Survey. The only way to predict the start of the seasons was by the positions of the stars overhead. The equinoxes and solstices were the primary way to determine the seasons. The middle of spring was when Niao was overhead, in the mid summer Huo is above, in Proprietorship Business Transactions Essay the mid autumn Xu is in the sky, and in mid winter Mao is Australian Adult and Life Skills Survey overhead. The Real GM Foos Scandal Essay. These star positions correspond to the equinoxes of the Adult Literacy Skills, spring and autumn and also to the solstices of the summer and medon odyssey winter. Australian Adult Skills Essay. Even more interest has been shown by the Chinese to apply their knowledge for astrologic purposes. By 2300 BC, ancient Chinese astrologers, already had sophisticated observatory buildings, and as early as 2650 BC, Li Shu was writing about astronomy.

Observing total solar eclipses was a major element of forecasting the future health and successes of the Emperor[5]. By about 20 BC, surviving documents show that Chinese astrologers discovered what caused eclipses, and by 8 BC some predictions of coldmist widow, total solar eclipse were made using the 135-month recurrence period. Adult And Life Essay. By AD 206 Chinese astrologers could predict solar eclipses by analyzing the Moon#8217;s motion. Stereotypes About Black. Before 1000 BC the eclipse records are often incomplete, however, and the dating of the bones is Australian Literacy and Life Survey Essay not reliable. Eclipse observations from the Chou dynasty and Warring States period (c. Coldmist Widow. 1050-221 BC), and onward, have been reliably dated, and it appears that some astronomers recognized eclipses as naturally occurring phenomena. From the Chou dynasty, 36 solar eclipse observations are recorded in the Ch#8217;un-ch#8217;iu beginning around 720 BC. The Piao and the Shih-chi documents refer to nine solar eclipses from the Warring States period[6]. The Chinese were the Australian Literacy and Life Survey Essay, first to record Halley’s Comet.

Their recording mentions the #8220;broom star#8221; on the handle of Yin. They also knew of many movements of the stars and medon odyssey were able to determine the difference between stars and planets. They also accounted for guest stars being present in the sun which would be referred as sunspots now. And Life Skills Essay. They had thought stars were within the sun. The path of the sun and the moon were recorded and studied. The sun and The Real GM Foos Scandal Essay the moon were on separate paths and are important for the complicated Chinese calendar.

Chinese traditional medicine is very different from the Adult and Life, European one, nevertheless it gained huge popularity on on Studies the West, and it’s most famous element is acupuncture which is very well-known to the people. No one was able to trace it#8217;s origin, it is still believed, that the Adult and Life Survey Essay, first relevant observations were made by military doctors, who cured soldiers, wounded with arrows. It could also have some origins in massage. Acupuncture using needles and the systematized meridians is more traceable to the past 2000 years[7]. The disease processes of the human body came to be seen as similar to external natural events – floods can ruin the crops, as drinking too much water with meals can impair digestion. Drought can lead to fires, as a dry cough can turn into The Real GM Foos Scandal Essay, the fire of a bloody cough and fever. In China, indisputable and voluminous textual evidence exists to prove that the Literacy and Life, circulation of the blood was an established doctrine by the second century BC at the latest. For the idea to have become elaborated by this time, however, into the full and complex doctrine that appears in The Yellow Emperor#8217;s Manual of coldmist widow, Corporeal Medicine (China#8217;s equivalent of the Hippocratic writings of Greece), the original notion must have appeared a very long time previously. It is Australian and Life Skills Essay safe to say that the idea occurred in China about two thousand years before it found acceptance in the West. The ancient Chinese conceived of Proprietorship Business Transactions, two separate circulations of fluids in the body.

Blood, pumped by the heart, flowed through the arteries, veins and capillaries. Ch#8217;i, an ethereal, rarefied form of energy, was pumped by the lungs to Literacy Survey Essay, circulate through the body in invisible tracts. The concept of this dual circulation of fluids was central to about black, the practice of acupuncture. The Chinese traditionally identified twenty-eight different types of pulse, which they recognized as emanating from the pumping heart. The entire view of the body and its functioning was that of Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills, a dual circulation theory of blood (which was yin) and ch#8217;i (which was yang).

The two were interrelated. As a text dating from about the time of Christ says: #8216;The flow of the blood is The Real GM Foos Essay maintained by the ch#8217;i, and the motion of the Australian Literacy and Life Skills Essay, ch#8217;i depends on the blood; thus coursing in mutual reliance they move around.#8217; The Yellow Emperor#8217;s Manual says: #8216;The function of the about black people, tract-channel system of the Adult, human body is to promote a normal passage of the blood and the ch#8217;i, so that the vital essentials derived from Extraterrestrial Cattle Throughout The World, man#8217;s food can nourish the yin and yang viscera, sustain the muscles, sinews and bones, and lubricate the joints.[8]#8217; Ancient China was truly a birth-place of many inventions and doctrines, which are applied in the entire modern world, including achievements in agriculture, engineering, mathematics, astronomy and medicine. The Chinese talked of the same thing as their European colleagues, and often much earlier than the Europeans did, however, they did it in the traditional way of their civilization, so many of their achievements were not understood or forgotten, to Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey, be later attributed to Europeans. Nevertheless, it is impossible to reject the influence, which the civilization of ancient China has on modern world, since some of it’s founding technologies and Proprietorship Business scientific methods origin exactly from China. Ho Peng Yoke, Li, Qi, and Shu: An Introduction to Literacy Skills, Science and Civilization in China (Hong Kong; Hong Kong University Press, 1985) Cho-Yun Hsu, Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.-A.D.

220 (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1980) John Merson, Genius That Was Chin (Overlook Hardcover, New York, 1990) A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (Open Court, Chicago, 1989) Charles Le Blanc, Susan Blader, Chinese Ideas about Nature and Society: Studies in Honour of Derk Bodde (Hong Kong University Press, 1987) Paul U. Unschuld, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text (University of California Press, Berkeley, 2003) [1] Ho Peng Yoke, Li, Qi, and Shu: An Introduction to Science and Civilization in China (Hong Kong; Hong Kong University Press, 1985), 121. [2] Cho-Yun Hsu, Han Agriculture: The Formation of Early Chinese Agrarian Economy, 206 B.C.-A.D. Coldmist Widow. 220 (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1980), 36. [3] John Merson, Genius That Was Chin (Overlook Hardcover, New York, 1990), 103. [4] A. C. Graham, Disputers of the Tao: Philosophical Argument in Ancient China (Open Court, Chicago, 1989), 53. Australian Skills Essay. [5] Charles Le Blanc, Susan Blader, Chinese Ideas about Essay Nature and Society: Studies in Australian Literacy Survey Essay Honour of Derk Bodde (Hong Kong University Press, 1987), 40. [6] Ho Peng Yoke, supra note, 159. [7] Paul U. Unschuld, Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen: Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text (University of California Press, Berkeley, 2003), 33.

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essay writing method Double-click on any word and see its definition from Cambridge Dictionaries Online. One of the most important skills you will learn and develop during your university years is Adult Literacy writing, in particular essay writing. Coldmist Widow. It is important to Australian Skills Survey, realise that this is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, and that therefore you should apply yourselves from the Business Transactions, very beginning, as you will be writing essays for which you will be graded from the early weeks to the very end of your degree programme. These skills will be used by you regularly once you leave university, no matter what path you choose to Australian and Life, take. Essay writing involves presenting an argument and communicating.

It can be easily imagined that this covers a vast variety of scenarios in which you need to be clear and persuasive : arguing that you should be given the job you are applying for, selling the outline of a film script you have written, presenting products at various forums, writing articles for publication, persuading your bank manager to extend your loan, preparing reports, beginning and sustaining your career in journalism, and writing lectures and class plans for your future students. The list is endless, and it is obvious that the Business, way you present your arguments in written form can make the Adult Literacy and Life Essay, difference between success and failure - in which case you will have to about people, think again. In some of the scenarios outlined above the skills required for essay writing should be slightly adapted but the basic skills and Adult Literacy Survey methods are in the main common to all forms of formal writing in stereotypes people which an argument or arguments need to be presented. The focus here is Literacy and Life Survey Essay primarily on writing essays concerning literature. You may have many great ideas and be a very intuitive and fine reader of Business Transactions Essay literature, but no-one will ever know if you cannot express your ideas properly and your communicative skills are not developed. It is no good carrying around insights into a particular piece of literature if you do not put efforts into presenting them clearly . Australian Literacy. Some of the following may be obvious, but the points need to be emphasised and consulted each time you are preparing an essay. The comments are based on years of experience of reading student essays, good, bad, and indifferent at the University of Liège. An essay should not be merely a list. Coldmist Widow. Too many in the past have been a list of notes, or a series of sub-headings followed by a list of dashes (-) or stars (*) accompanied by one or two words and/or quotations from the literary text with no explanation of what they are doing there.

Let us be blunt here and Literacy and Life Survey state that we tutors are not impressed by medon odyssey, indiscriminate underlining and the use of different coloured pens. Sub-headings written in magenta, underlined in Australian Adult Survey Essay ochre, followed by a list of quotations in vermilion are pointless. We are not tricked by attempts to distract us, through dazzling visual displays, from the fact that an essay is poor. An essay should be the development of argument, interpretation and analysis through extended and flowing narrative . To do this you need to work at Reflection on Studies at the Essays the level of the sentence, of course, but also, very importantly, you need to work at the level of the paragraph . The paragraph is a coherent passage of logically connected sentences usually concentrating on no more than one or two ideas relevant to Australian Literacy and Life Skills Survey Essay, your argument. Medon Odyssey. Do not use very short and unconnected staccato sentences. It takes experience and practice to Australian Adult and Life, develop a sense of when a new paragraph is needed and when it has been finished. Medon Odyssey. Examine the introduction to Australian Literacy Skills Survey Essay, this booklet and this guide to get some sense of how paragraphs, or ' idea units ' as they have also been called, can be developed and constructed, and how their 'natural' beginnings and ends appear.

The first sentence of the paragraph should generally be a 'strong' one, used to signal or indicate the idea to be discussed within the paragraph. Think of a 'topic sentence', as it has also been called, which will highlight the main areas examined in a particular paragraph. Connecting and signposting words and phrases should be learnt, used, practised and developed (examples are 'furthermore', 'moreover', 'in addition', 'to qualify the above', 'however', 'in order to', 'in this connection', 'having established that' etc.). The argument should develop through the stereotypes people, language you use and Australian Adult Skills Essay therefore in at the Essays a short essay sub-headings are unnecessary. Several stages are involved in essay preparation, choosing which points are to be considered, deciding how you will deal with them, and the actual writing. As you gain more experience you will find methods and ways of working which suit you, your personality and lifestyle. Generally, however, the process will involve the following. You should examine carefully the statements made in the essay question , making sure you understand each word and what is being asked, as misreading and misunderstanding at this stage can be fatal. Essay questions can be very general, very specific and sometimes deliberately provocative, and an understanding of them is essential.

Read through notes you may have made in class, start to gather other relevant source material , and make notes about the literary text you are examining. Ask yourself the questions suggested earlier in the introduction to this booklet, concerning style, content, and imagery etc. Next you will probably want to identify the key points that you want to discuss. There may be many points you find generally interesting, but ask yourself if they are relevant to Adult and Life Survey Essay, the essay in question. To do this it can be useful to people, try to Essay, think of a title for your essay.

This is not to be confused with the essay question or title, but is concerned with your response to the task set. What title would best give the reader an overview of your approach and analysis, and highlight the main points you examine and the conclusions you reach? (Suggestions concerning conclusions will be given later). You should not assume that an medon odyssey, essay has to include and cover all the possible points an Australian Adult Literacy Skills, interpretation may offer up. A short, well organised and Extraterrestrial Beings: Mutilations Throughout structured essay focusing on Adult Literacy and Life some of the main points is far better than an over-long and unwieldy attempt to say a little about everything. You may find it useful to state in the introduction which points you are focusing on and why. Keep your reader informed of the development of your argument. Let her or him know which direction is being taken and the reasons why. Once the main points have been identified you need to consider in which order they will be examined. Students often do not make the coldmist widow, most of the good ideas they have because they get lost if the argument does not develop coherently. Good points are also often thrown away or wasted because students do not say enough about them.

Make sure the Australian Skills Survey Essay, relevance of each point to the main argument is clearly stated and demonstrated. You should dwell and linger on the points: often this requires no more than two or three extra sentences, particularly if your writing is concise and on Studies at the focused. A good essay takes time to prepare and Australian and Life Skills Survey Essay write, so start to think about it and do the groundwork well ahead of the essay deadline (even in timed conditions, such as exams, it is important to take the time to organise and structure the essay before starting to write). Coldmist Widow. You will probably find that you need to work out your ideas on paper before writing the essay, and are encouraged to prepare an and Life Skills Essay, outline of the essay: a point by point series of key words, phrases and medon odyssey ideas. This will help you to organise the structure and to recognise what is relevant and irrelevant to the essay as a whole.

Some people find that a plan or outline will consist of eight to ten words only. Literacy Survey Essay. Others find it more useful to draw up very detailed plans, outlining every paragraph and its contents. Again you will discover which method works for you as you go along. Some students find it easier to think and plan the essay point by point before beginning to write, whilst others find that after some initial preparation, reading, organisation and thinking they can only develop their ideas through writing. Both these approaches take time, if the essays are to be done well. It should be stressed here that the on Studies University Essays, first plan does not have to be binding and may change as the work begins and Australian Literacy and Life Survey Essay develops. The main point here is that essays involve a certain amount of planning and preparation even before the actual writing begins. Having emphasised that essays are hard work and take time it should also be stressed that it can be very stimulating and The Real GM Foos rewarding to work through a number of ideas in depth and detail. Literary texts and literary language are potentially very complex, inspiring, and beautiful. The ideas and images often demand careful thought and attention. Computers are essential in terms of using the time you spend on Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay an essay efficiently and productively.

As stated earlier, good essay writing demands time spent on every stage of the process: reading and research, making an outline, ordering and structuring your ideas, writing and changing various drafts, and final editing and presentation. With this in mind it cannot be stressed enough how important it is for you to learn word-processing skills and to make sure you have access to a computer. Use the university resources. At The Essays. Admittedly the space available is limited at times but this is Adult Literacy Skills Survey Essay no excuse not to learn the skills, if you do not already possess them, and to find out where there are available computer terminals. Of course if you use university resources it is even more important to start your essay early in order to avoid the last minute rush as most students, not only from this department, search for terminals in a panic on the Friday before a Monday deadline. It is appreciated that students are very busy and do have a lot of coldmist widow work, but it is a mistake to Adult Skills Survey, claim, as some students have been heard, that they are too busy to learn word-processing skills. Ultimately word-processing will save you a lot of time. It is far easier to add and delete material, and to restructure and medon odyssey reorganise essays by moving material around, on a computer than if you are writing by hand. Software has become really user-friendly; 'Word', for instance, will tell you what to do in explicit English or French, and Adult Literacy Skills Survey Essay typing skills can be learned whilst typing. Your essay will be the representation of an argument on a given subject or subjects . Business Transactions Essay. It will include only points which are relevant to the subject, so be careful to Adult Survey, get rid of material that is not directly relevant. Although students complain that essays are too long, most of the essays you will write are really relatively short.

Part of the skill of writing is to write concisely and economically , without wasting material or 'padding' the work with irrelevant diversions and coldmist widow repetition. Once the points have been chosen they should be presented logically and Literacy Survey Essay coherently , so do not leap about from point to point. Each point generally will have some connection to the preceding one and Reflection at the Essays the one to Adult and Life, follow. If you do leave one area of the black, essay to Australian Literacy, move into another, but intend later to go back to the point you have left and show, for example, how the points may be connected or related, then it can be useful to say so by 'signposting', e.g. 'this point will be picked up later', 'this point will be returned to Business Transactions Essay, later, after taking into Australian Adult Literacy Essay consideration . '. After each draft of the essay check that each point is presented in a logical and coherent order. The Real. Read each draft carefully and critically. Is there a significant idea you have not included in the essay? Do you need to expand some of the points you have chosen to write about?

Are some of the points, after due consideration, not really relevant? Have you been too long-winded or repetitive? If so, cut out and/or reduce some of the Literacy Survey, text. Does your argument need to be clearer, and do the links between some of the Proprietorship Business Essay, main points need more emphasis? You should be asking yourself these questions throughout the Adult Literacy and Life, whole process. A particularly distressing weakness in the past, but hopefully not the future, has been the stereotypes about black people, absence of serious discussion of imagery and literary language . Some students have merely stated that the Australian Literacy, author uses imagery, illustrated this with an example, and then moved on to the next point on the list.

If you discuss images, metaphors and other literary devices, then say how and why they are being used in the piece of fiction, and maybe if you think the imagery works or not. If you do not say how and why an image is being used then don't mention it. You will not write good work on literature if you approach an essay as some useless game of 'spot the image'. Throughout your years at Business Transactions Essay the University of Liège you will be writing essays on Australian Adult and Life Survey Essay literature which will inevitably include numerous quotations , either from the literature you are working on Proprietorship Essay or from secondary sources, be they books or articles on Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay historical context, literary criticism or other relevant areas. These quotations can obviously add much to the texture and quality of your work, but they are often handled very badly by students. Medon Odyssey. Do not assume that a good quotation will do all the work you want by itself. Poor essays are often merely a patchwork of Australian Skills Essay quotations stitched together by the briefest of comments, and Business it is a mistake to leave quotations hanging in mid-air, as it were, without comment or explanation. Adult Skills Essay. Quotations need to be framed. They should be introduced, not mechanically, but within a context provided by the logical development of your argument . ( See Example 1 at the end of this guide). You should also provide some commentary on the quotations, particularly if they include difficult and/or controversial ideas or material.

This is often likely to be the case as there is stereotypes about people really little point in including 'bland' quotations in your essay. Australian Adult And Life Skills Survey. You may want to gloss, explain, qualify or modify the quoted words, or you may have included quotations whose assumptions or arguments you strongly disagree with. The latter case can be useful, if handled well. Often an argument can be developed through contrast with opposing or differing arguments. This tactic in essay construction also displays independent thinking in stereotypes about black that it demonstrates that you have not unthinkingly accepted and Adult and Life Essay believed everything you have read. One final point on quotations: do not plagiarise . Using other people's work without saying so is a serious crime.

Tutors have read widely on medon odyssey the subjects you will be writing on and are very likely to recognise when you are plagiarising. If you use other people's ideas and words they have to be acknowledged through proper footnoting and referencing . ( See Example 2 at the end of this guide). Essays need a conclusion , which for the sake of clarity should be relatively short. It is generally best not to include new ideas or new material in your concluding comments, particularly since many people think that a conclusion should be a summary of the prior arguments. Australian Essay. You may, however, point to alternative conclusions or arguments, or briefly suggest areas of interest that have not been dealt with directly by the essay. People often get the wrong idea about conclusions and believe that this is the place to state firm convictions, and that a conclusion has to make a stand and Extraterrestrial Beings: and Abductions come down on the side of one argument or another. Australian Adult Skills. This can be the GM Foos Scandal Essay, case but it is not necessarily so. Australian And Life Skills Essay. If an coldmist widow, essay title comes in the form of a question, for example 'Is James Joyce seeking to distance himself from traditional forms of Irish culture?', and you cannot decide, do not think that this is a problem. It is Australian Literacy Survey as much a sign of intelligence to state that you cannot decide as it is to sift through the evidence and decide one way or the people, other. Think about why you cannot decide.

Perhaps the Australian Adult Skills, evidence is conflicting. Mutilations Throughout. Perhaps the literary text and its use of imagery is ambiguous, or even contradictory; as is often the Australian and Life Survey Essay, case. Proprietorship Business Transactions Essay. If you cannot decide, then say so, outlining why you cannot decide. Alternatively, you may partly agree or partly disagree with the statements or questions raised by the title , or by questions raised directly in responding to the title. If so, say so.

A forced conclusion to an essay can be as bad as the essay having no concluding remarks at all. In connection to Adult and Life Skills Essay, the last point it should be emphasised that any essay should be about your ideas and GM Foos Essay your interpretation of the literature being studied . Of course your ideas may, and Australian Adult Literacy and Life Survey Essay indeed should, develop through discussions with friends, fellow students, tutors and through the consultation of books and articles, but it is your ideas which should form the basis of the essay. Coldmist Widow. Whilst you will use material that is not your own, it is the way that you use, add to, adapt and modify this material that makes the Australian Adult and Life Survey, argument your own and Proprietorship Business Transactions original. Survey Essay. Your own voice should be heard. This needs to be qualified by the understanding that there is a particular form and style in academic writing . This is generally formal, analytical , and coldmist widow 'serious' rather than colloquial, emotional and conversational . Your voice and your ideas need to be heard, but be careful of Literacy Skills Essay cultivating an overly idiosyncratic, 'individual' style. Remember that in writing you are communicating and Proprietorship Business that therefore your argument should be clearly expressed. This does not mean you should be simplistic: it is a very important skill to express complex ideas with clarity. One final point needs to be made on Adult Literacy Skills the subject of the black, essays you write being about your ideas. Some of you may find this an extraordinary statement but it is a bad idea to Adult Literacy and Life, tailor and construct your essay around what you believe your tutor or the head of the course thinks about the text, and what you think she or he wants to Scandal Essay, hear. If you have different methods or your interpretations differ from those of the tutor, then develop them happily. Remember that essay writing is all about presenting an argument and using evidence from the Australian Adult and Life Skills, text and elsewhere to Proprietorship Transactions Essay, back up your statements, and Literacy and Life if you do this well you will be given credit for it whether or not the tutor agrees with the overall argument.

It is not particularly interesting for tutors to read in essays only Proprietorship Transactions what they have said in Australian Literacy and Life Survey Essay class, particularly if this is reproduced in a flat, unconvincing, and unconvinced manner. Of course you may agree and be persuaded by arguments and coldmist widow interpretations outlined in Literacy Skills Survey Essay class but if you do not believe the arguments you reproduce in the essay it will be obvious and the tutor will wonder why you bothered to GM Foos Essay, include them. Survey Essay. You will write a better essay if you are focusing on your own ideas, developed through discussion and reading, not least because you will be enthused by them. Eventually your ideas will be thought through, outlines planned and re-planned, main points developed, written down on paper, then rewritten, and Beings: Cattle Mutilations and Abductions finally given to your tutor. Nevertheless your work on the essay has not yet finished. Adult Skills Survey Essay. Once the essay has been graded and returned it is Reflection on Studies at the University very important that you do not merely look at the grade you have received before putting it at the bottom of your files. Read through your tutor's comments carefully, and make sure you understand exactly why you have received the grade you have, even if you are happy with it.

If you do not understand why, or you are not sure about Adult Skills Essay your tutor's comments, then ask. If it is not possible to coldmist widow, ask during class or you would prefer to Skills Survey, talk privately go to your tutor during office hours, or make an appointment if these clash with other classes. Writing is a skill which has to be learnt and practised, it is an ongoing process and you will learn more each time. Follow up work once the coldmist widow, essay has been returned is an important part of Adult Survey this process. Example 1: Using Quotations. The extract below, from a paper on coldmist widow Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie , shows how quotations can be used.

Because the Australian Literacy Skills Survey Essay, paper quotes from the novel extensively, page numbers are found within the main body of the text, in parentheses, after complete bibliographical details have been provided in a footnote to the first quotation. Quotations from secondary sources are referenced by footnotes. Short quotations are included, in quotation marks, within the main body of the University Essays, paper, whilst the Adult Literacy Survey Essay, longer quotation, without quotation marks, makes up an indented paragraph. Note that even when the medon odyssey, writing by the author of the paper is combined with quotations from the novel and secondary sources the sentences are still grammatically correct and coherent. Jean Brodie is convinced of the rightness of her own power, and uses it in a frightening manner: 'Give me a girl at an impressionable age, and she is mine for life'. Adult And Life Skills Survey. 1 This is coldmist widow Miss Brodie's adoption of the Jesuit formula, but, whereas they claim the child for God, she moulds the child for Skills Survey Essay her own ends. 'You are mine,' she says, '. of my stamp and cut . ' (129).

When Sandy, her most perceptive pupil, sees the medon odyssey, 'Brodie set' 'as a body with Miss Brodie for the head' (36), there is, as David Lodge points out, a biblical parallel with the Church as the and Life Skills Survey Essay, body of coldmist widow Christ. 2 God is Miss Jean Brodie's rival, and Australian and Life Essay this is demonstrated in Proprietorship Essay a literal way when one of her girls, Eunice, grows religious and is preparing herself for confirmation. She becomes increasingly independent of Adult Literacy Skills Miss Brodie's influence and decides to go on the Modern side in the Senior school although Jean Brodie makes clear her own preference for the Classical. Eunice refuses to continue her role as the group's jester, or to go with them to the ballet. Extraterrestrial Cattle Mutilations And Abductions The World. Cunningly, her tutor tries to regain control by playing on her religious convictions:

All that term she tried to Adult Skills Survey Essay, inspire Eunice to medon odyssey, become at Adult Literacy Survey least a pioneer missionary in some deadly and dangerous zone of the earth, for it was intolerable to Miss Brodie that any of her girls should grow up not largely dedicated to some vocation. 'You will end up as a Girl Guide leader in a suburb like Corstorphine', she said warningly to Eunice, who was in fact secretly attracted to this idea and who lived in Corstorphine. (81) Miss Brodie has different plans for GM Foos Essay Rose; she is to be a 'great lover' (146), and her tutor audaciously absolves her from the sins this will entail: 'she is above the moral code, it does not apply to her' (146). Adult And Life. This dismissal of possible retribution distorts the girls' judgement of Proprietorship Business Miss Brodie's actions. The above passage is taken from Ruth Whittaker, The Faith and Fiction of Muriel Spark (London and Basingstoke: MacMillan, 1982), pp.106-7. Example 2: Laying out a bibliography. The bibliography will usually include the relevant sources consulted in producing your essay , even if you have not referred to or quoted from them directly. The order is alphabetical and determined by the authors' names. Book titles appear in italics or are underlined , whilst article titles appear in Australian Literacy Skills inverted commas.

When referring to medon odyssey, books you should include the author's name, place of publication, the publisher, and the date when the book was published. To reference the source of an article from a journal include the name of the journal, the number and/or volume number, the date of publication and the page numbers. There are several styles for laying out a bibliography, but the same elements appear in each, and you must be consistent. Consult the handbooks to be found in the libraries for further details. This is a model used by Literacy Skills Survey, many British universities and Business publishers. Dahlgren, Pete, Television and the Public Sphere (London: Sage Publishers, 1995) Dubois, Ellen, 'Antipodean Feminism', New Left Review , no.206, July/August 1994, 127-33. Fussel, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975)

Gledhill, Christine, 'Melodrama', in The Cinema Book , ed. Pam Cook (London: BFI, 1985), pp.73-84. Lodge, David, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ' in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44. Pettifer, James, The Greeks (London: Penguin, 1993) This is the model recommended by the Modern Languages Association (MLA) and Adult Literacy Skills is used by most American universities and coldmist widow publishers. Dahlgren, Pete. Television and Australian Adult Literacy and Life Skills Essay the Public Sphere . London: Sage Publishers, 1995. Dubois, Ellen. Antipodean Feminism.

New Left Review 206 (July/August 1994): 127-33. Fussel, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1975. Gledhill, Christine. Melodrama in The Cinema Book . Ed. Pam Cook. London: BFI, 1985. 73-84. Lodge, David. The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie in David Lodge The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971. The Real Scandal Essay. 119-44.

Pettifer, James. Australian Adult Skills Essay. The Greeks. London: Penguin, 1993. The essential information provided by each model is given in the same order, but they differ in the way that the details are presented. Whichever model you choose or are instructed to use ensure that you stay consistent to it. Consult reference works for further advice.

These books are on coldmist widow the open shelves: · John Clanchy and Brigid Ballard, How to Skills, Write Essays (Melbourne: Longman Cheshire, 1992) · Joseph Gibaldi, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (New York: MLA, 1995) 1 Muriel Spark, The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie (London: Macmillan, 1961), p.7. All further references are to this edition and given in the text. 2 David Lodge, 'The Uses and Abuses of Omniscience: Method and Meaning in Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie ', in David Lodge, The Novelist at the Crossroads and Other Essays on Fiction and Criticism (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), pp.119-44.